Frank L. Acosta Jr., MD
- Director of Spine Deformity
- Department of Neurosurgery
- Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
- Los Angeles, California
This is followed by the slow progressive loss of memory and cognitive and intellectual functions blood pressure nicotine order 40 mg betapace with visa, leading to the deterioration of physical functioning and incapacitation arteria zygomatico orbital purchase 40mg betapace free shipping. Alzheimer found abnormal clumps of material-now called beta-amyloid plaques-and tangled bundles of fibers-neurofibrillary tangles-in Frau D. The plaques, sometimes called senile plaques, are sticky clumps or clusters of dead and dying neurons and other cellular debris surrounding insoluble deposits of beta-amyloid. They are believed to interfere with normal communication between neurons, eventually causing the nerve cells to die. The tangles are accumulations of twisted fragments of tau proteins inside neurons. When tau proteins are damaged by the addition of phosphorus, a process called hyperphosphorylation, they form filaments that twist around each other to form neurofibrillary tangles that can no longer stabilize the neurons. Connections between nerve cells are disrupted and nerve cells die in areas of the brain that are vital for memory and learning, including the hippocampus, which is a structure deep in the brain that controls short-term memory. Eventually many areas of the brain become involved and atrophied (shrunken and dysfunctional). Acetylcholine and norepinephrine are important for many processes in the body including digestion, blood vessel dilation and constriction, and regulation of heartbeat. A deterministic gene directs the disease to develop in anyone possessing that gene. In these cases, family members possess risk genes, which increase the likelihood of the disease but do not absolutely confer the disease. The risk to immediate relatives increases as more family members develop the disease. Studies on special breeds of genetically engineered (transgenic) mice have suggested high blood cholesterol levels may increase the rate of plaque deposition. Brain inflammation and restriction of blood flow to the brain may play a role in the development of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Highly reactive molecules called free radicals damage all types of cells through oxidative processes, especially brain cells, which have lower levels of protective antioxidants. It was not until the 1980s and 1990s that researchers began to examine behavioral and psychiatric symptoms more closely. Although hallucinations can affect any of the senses, most are visual or auditory. Like delusions, hallucinations are believed to be related to the deterioration of brain tissue. Emotionally excited behavior (screaming, shouting, cursing, pacing, fidgeting, etc. Patients may not remember the names of objects and use words like 'thing' or 'it' instead. Patients with apraxia may have trouble putting on a hospital gown or brushing their teeth. Patients require assistance with tasks such as paying bills or balancing a checkbook. Patients require assistance in making everyday personal decisions such as choosing appropriate clothing or ordering from a restaurant menu. Delusions, or a false belief that is maintained even in the presence of evidence to the contrary. Patients require assistance dressing, bathing, and using the toilet and may have urinary and/or bowel incontinence. The ability to walk is lost, followed by an inability to maintain a sitting posture in a chair. Eventually patients experience a profound lack of purposeful muscle control, are totally dependent for care, and cannot smile or hold up their head. Everyone has occasional memory lapses that do not signify any change in cognitive function. Other patients are keenly aware of their memory loss and may become anxious and frustrated. Becoming lost or disoriented on a walk around the neighborhood becomes more likely as the disease progresses. Although the progression of memory loss varies, it eventually begins to interfere with daily activities. Memory loss, especially of recent events, becomes more severe and is accompanied by moderate spatial and temporal disorientation, loss of ability to concentrate, aphasia, and increased anxiety. Because of individual variation in disease progression, some patients may still be able to carry out routine behaviors and engage in generalized conversation. They are unable to work, plan and execute familiar tasks, and reason and exercise judgment. Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms include agitation, wandering, temper tantrums, depression, and disorientation. Although they frequently deny that they cannot see, autopsies confirm destruction in areas of the brain that process visual images. Some people are unaware of any impairment, blaming their forgetfulness on old age or 'senior moments. Some patients repeat words, thoughts, or movements, a behavior known as perseveration. Eventually they are unable to feed, bathe, dress, or groom themselves and cannot be left unattended. Patients who can walk often wander aimlessly and must be monitored for night wandering due to altered sleep patterns. Although some patients may use a wheelchair temporarily, eventually they become completely bedridden, unable even to sit up. Abnormal jerking movements may occur for no reason or in response to touch or noises. Reflexes may be exaggerated and some patients experience whole body contractions known as generalized seizures. Once the disease affects the brain stem, the basic processes of digestion, respiration, and excretion shut down. Their hands and feet feel cold, breathing becomes shallow, and the patient is generally unresponsive. From the onset of initial symptoms, disease progression can last up to 25 years, although the typical duration is eight to 10 years. Dominant means that it will affect individuals even if they inherited one copy of the mutated gene from one parent and a normal copy of the gene from the other parent. Individuals who have two copies of the mutant gene will pass on the gene to all of their children. If each parent has one copy of the mutant gene, there is a 75% that any of their children will inherit the gene. It also may be important for the functioning of synaptic connections between neurons. These three mutations result in the production of abnormal proteins and increased amounts of betaamyloid. Apolipoprotein E is a major part of a lipoprotein that removes excess cholesterol from the blood. Normal individuals have two copies of each of the 22 human chromosomes, one copy from each parent. Diagnosis is based upon clinical findings of otherwise unexplained slowly progressing dementia. Alcohol-associated dementia is caused by nutritional deficiencies in alcoholics, especially malnutrition and deficiencies in vitamins B1 (thiamine) and B12 (cobalamin) and niacin (nicotinic acid). Chronic use of certain drugs such as tranquilizers, sedatives, and pain relievers, as well as drug interactions, can cause potentially reversible dementia. Endocrine abnormalities (hormone imbalances), especially thyroid dysfunction, are less common causes of dementia. Amygdala-An almond-shaped brain structure of the limbic system that is activated in stressful situations and triggers fear.
Antihypertensives may be given to help control high blood pressure and diuretics may be used to reduce fluid retention and swelling hypertension classification betapace 40 mg free shipping. In those who do not recover fully blood pressure medication reactions buy cheap betapace 40mg, chronic or progressive problems of kidney function may occur. In March 2011, a strong earthquake and massive tsunami near Tohoku, Japan, caused a nuclear power plant disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex, about 150 miles (242 km) north of Tokyo. The sequence of disasters resulted in the death of more than 15,000 people, with 5,000 more injured. Hundreds of thousands of buildings and homes were destroyed or damaged in the disaster. The National Comorbidity Survey, a major epidemiological study conducted between 1990 and 1992, estimated that the lifetime prevalence of trauma-related stress disorders among adult Americans was 7. These figures represented only a small proportion of adults who had experienced at least one traumatic event-60. More than 10% of the men and 6% of the women reported experiencing four or more types of trauma in their lives. Others explain the conditions as two phases of an extended reaction to traumatic stress. Natural disasters (such as floods, earthquakes, or hurricanes) or accidents (airplane crashes, workplace explosions) are considered less traumatic than intentional human acts (such as abuse or murder) or terrorism. Although most people define trauma in terms of events such as war, terrorist attacks, and other events that result in vast loss of life, the leading cause of stress-related mental disorders in the United States is motor vehicle accidents. Most Americans are involved in a traffic accident at some point in their lives, and 25% of the population are involved in accidents resulting in serious injuries. They do not meet the criteria of a brief psychotic disorder and do not represent the worsening of a mental disorder that the person had before the traumatic event. Delayed symptoms are often triggered by a situation that resembles the original trauma. The authors of the scale recommend that its use should be followed by a careful clinical evaluation. This treatment combines cognitive restructuring of the traumatic event with exposure to disturbing images and techniques for anxiety management. In addition, it can help patients identify and reinforce positive aspects of their experience. For example, some people discover new strengths or talents in times of crisis or discover new spiritual resources. Group and family therapies also help reinforce effective strategies for coping with the trauma and may reduce the risk of social isolation as a reaction to the trauma. They provide opportunities for patients to describe what happened and how they responded. As patients place their experience into a coherent narrative, they integrate the trauma into their lives as a whole, and, by telling their story, they receive support from their listeners. Usually, a therapist asks the patient to relate what happened during the incident and to describe the emotions felt at that time and experienced thereafter. Drugs may be prescribed but are usually limited to those necessary for treating specific symptoms. Medications Specific drugs prescribed include clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon), for hyperarousal; propranolol (Inderal), clonazepam (Ceberclon, Klonopin, Valpax), or alprazolam (Niravam, Xanax), for anxiety and panic reactions; fluoxetine (Prozac, Rapiflux, Sarafem, Selfemra), for avoidance symptoms; and trazodone (Desyrel, Oleptro, Trazon, Trialodine) or topiramate (Topamax, Topiragen), for insomnia and nightmares. Symptoms may include depressed mood, anxiety, and impairment of social and occupational functioning. Depersonalization-A dissociative symptom in which individuals feel that their body is unreal, changing, or dissolving. Derealization-A dissociative symptom in which the external environment is perceived as unreal or dreamlike. Dissociation-A reaction to trauma in which the mind splits off certain aspects of the traumatic event from conscious awareness. Dissociative amnesia-A dissociative disorder characterized by loss of memory for a period or periods of time, which may occur as a result of a traumatic event. Exposure therapy-A form of cognitive-behavioral therapy in which patients suffering from phobias are exposed to their feared objects or situations while accompanied by the therapist. Flashback-The reemergence of a traumatic memory as a vivid recollection of sounds, images, and sensations associated with the trauma. The person having such a memory typically feels as if he or she is reliving the event. Hyperarousal-A symptom of traumatic stress characterized by abnormally intense reactions to stimuli. Hypervigilance-A state of abnormally intense wariness or watchfulness that is found in survivors of trauma or long-term abuse. Hypervigilance is sometimes described as the feeling of being on red alert all the time. Personalization-The tendency to refer large-scale events or general patterns of events to the self in inappropriate ways. Psychic numbing-An inability to respond emotionally with normal intensity to people or situations; this numbing affects positive as well as negative emotions. Supportive-An approach in psychotherapy that seeks to encourage or emotionally support the patient, as distinct from insight-oriented or educational approaches to treatment. Therapeutic writing-A treatment technique in which patients are asked to write an account of the traumatic event and their emotional responses to it. Other possible developments are neglect of personal needs for health or safety and impulsive or needlessly risky behavior. Traumas caused by human action require major social changes to reduce their frequency and severity, but given the increasing prevalence of trauma-related stress disorders around the world, these long-term changes are worth the effort. Post-traumatic and Acute Stress Disorders: the Latest Assessment and Treatment Strategies. Traumatic Stress: the Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. Addictions are characterized by the increasing need for more of the substance or activity to obtain the same effect. Abstinence from the addiction may cause unpleasant or even life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. Dependence on specific drugs included: Alcohol Marijuana Pain relievers Cocaine Tranquilizers Stimulants Heroin Halluginogens Inhalants Sedatives 14. An estimated four million Americans over the age of 12 use prescription pain relievers, sedatives, or stimulants for nonmedical reasons during any given month. These included amphetamines, sedatives/barbiturates, tranquilizers, and opiates other than heroin. Studies show the death rate from heroin overdose doubled in the 48 states from 2010 to 2012, increasing from 1. However the use of illegal drugs among American teenagers declined by 24% between 2001 and 2007. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use among American youth also declined significantly over the first decade of the twenty-first century. Statistics on addictive activities are more difficult to obtain because these behaviors are less clearly defined than substance addiction. Substance abuse and addiction costs Americans more than $484 billion annually in healthcare costs, lost earnings, accidents, and crime. Every year Americans suffer approximately 40 million debilitating illnesses or injuries as a result of tobacco, alcohol, and other addictive drug use. Likewise about one in ten Canadians age 15 and older are addicted to alcohol or drugs. However gender differences are much less pronounced among adolescents: teenage girls are almost as likely as boys to abuse a substance. It is estimated that worldwide tobacco use results in five million deaths annually. Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, with 483,000 deaths annually, which is about one out of every five deaths. Description Addiction most commonly refers to the compulsive use or abuse of or physical or psychological dependence on addictive substances, such as the following: tobacco alcohol cocaine, including crack cocaine amphetamines, including methamphetamine or 'crank,' an extremely addictive substance heroin prescription medications disorders that are major clinical syndromes (called 'Axis 1').
Ultrasound-A procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are used to create a picture of the baby blood pressure 60 year old betapace 40mg discount, used alone or with antepartum tests hypertension treatment guidelines 2013 cheap betapace online master card. Vibroacoustic stimulation-In the biophysical profile, use of an artificial larynx to produce a loud noise to 'awaken' the fetus. Antepartum tests are usually done in pregnancies at high risk for fetal complications. Purpose Antepartum testing is performed after 32 weeks of pregnancy so that the couple and the doctor can be warned of any problems that may necessitate further testing or immediate delivery. The results reflect the adequacy of blood flow (and oxygen delivery) to the fetus from the placenta. This may be reflected in decreased movements of the baby, decreased amniotic fluid, and changes in the heart rate pattern of the baby. It is based on the principle that when the fetus moves, its heartbeat normally speeds up. The mother lays down or sits, and an electronic fetal monitor is placed on her abdomen to monitor the fetal heart rate. To record fetal movements on the tracing, the mother presses a button every time she feels the baby move. If the baby is inactive, the mother may be asked to rub her abdomen to 'awaken' it. Sometimes an instrument is used to produce a loud noise to arouse the fetus (vibroacoustic stimulation). A baby who is receiving enough oxygen should move at least twice in a 20 minute period. During the biophysical profile, the examiner checks for various characteristics of the baby to evaluate its overall health. These include: fetal movement, fetal tone, breathing movements, and the amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is important because a decreased amount raises the possibility that the baby may be under stress. Uterine contractions produce 'stress' in the fetus because they temporarily stop the flow of blood and oxygen. Maternal blood pressure and fetal heart rate are recorded along with the onset, relative intensity, and duration of any spontaneous contractions. For an accurate test, the contractions should be of sufficient duration and frequency. The fetal heart rate is observed until, ideally, three moderate contractions occur within 10 minutes. Antepartum testing Preparation the mother should eat just before the antepartum tests to help stimulate fetal activity. Ultrasound used for the biophysical profile is painless and safe because it uses no harmful radiation, and no evidence has been found that sound waves cause any adverse effects on the mother or fetus. All of the tests occasionally give incorrect results, which may prompt an unnecessary early delivery or cesarean. Results In general, 'negative' or normal results on antepartum testing provide reassurance that the baby is healthy and should remain so with no need for immediate delivery. Abnormal results A 'positive' result suggests that the baby is not receiving enough oxygen for some reason. To confirm or monitor a suspected disorder, follow-up testing with the same or an alternate test will probably be performed at least weekly. Abnormal decreases in the heart rate (decelerations) are also a cause for concern. A biophysical profile score of 6 is considered a cause for concern and should be followed by further testing. This can suggest that the baby is not receiving enough oxygen and may have difficulty withstanding the stress of labor and vaginal delivery. In some cases, delivery can be postponed while medication is given to the mother or the fetus. The large fetus of a diabetic woman may require cesarean delivery; severe preeclampsia also may necessitate induction of labor or cesarean section. In humans, the infection can often be treated, but it is almost always fatal in animals. Description Anthrax is most often found in the agricultural areas of South and Central America, southern and eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. In the United States, anthrax is rarely reported; however, cases of animal infection with anthrax are most often reported in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and South Dakota. The bacterium and its associated disease get their name from the Greek word meaning 'coal' because of the characteristic coal-black sore that is the hallmark of the most common form of the disease. Spores are the small, thickwalled dormant stage of some bacteria that enable them to survive for long periods of time under adverse conditions. Ninger 296 Humans suffering from anthrax often develop ulcerating nodules on the body. Bronchitis-Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes of the lung that can make it difficult to breathe. Spore-A dormant form assumed by some bacteria, such as anthrax, that enable the bacterium to survive high temperatures, dryness, and lack of nourishment for long periods of time. The largest-ever documented outbreak of human anthrax contracted through spore inhalation occurred in Russia in 1979, when anthrax spores were accidentally released from a military laboratory, causing a regional epidemic that killed 69 of its 77 victims. In the United States in 2001, terrorists converted anthrax spores into a powder that could be inhaled and mailed it to intended targets, including news agencies and prominent individuals in the federal government. Because the United States government considers anthrax to be of potential risk to soldiers, the Department of Defense has begun systematic vaccination of all military personnel against anthrax. For civilians in the United States, the government has instituted a program called the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile program in which antibiotics and other medical materials to treat two million people are located so that they could be received anywhere in the country within twelve hours following a disaster or terrorist attack. Anthrax Causes and symptoms the naturally occurring bacterium Bacillus anthracis produces spores that can remain dormant for years in soil and on animal products, such as hides, wool, hair, or bones. The disease is often fatal to cattle, sheep, and goats, and their hides, wool, and bones are often heavily contaminated. The bacteria are found in many types of soil, all over the world, and usually do not pose a problem for humans because the spores stay in the ground. In order to infect a human, the spores have to be released from the soil and must enter the body. They can enter the body through a cut in the skin, through consuming contaminated meat, or through inhaling the spores. Once the spores are in the body, and if antibiotics are not administered, the spores become bacteria that multiply and release a toxin that affects the immune system. In the inhaled form of the infection, the immune system can become overwhelmed and the body can go into shock. Symptoms vary depending on how the disease was contracted, but the symptoms usually appear within one week of exposure. Cutaneous anthrax In humans, anthrax usually occurs when the spores enter a cut or abrasion, causing a skin (cutaneous) infection at the site. Cutaneous anthrax, as this infection is called, is the mildest and most common form of the disease. At first, the bacteria cause an 297 the largest outbreak ever recorded in the United States occurred in 1957 when nine employees of a goat hair processing plant became ill after handling a contaminated shipment from Pakistan. Other cases appeared in the 1970s when contaminated goatskin drumheads from Haiti were brought into the United States as souvenirs. Anthrax is rare, even among cattle, largely because of widespread animal vaccination. However, some serious epidemics continue to occur among animal herds and in human settlements in developing countries due to ineffective control programs. In humans, the disease is almost always an occupational hazard, contracted by those who handle animal hides (farmers, butchers, and veterinarians) or sort wool. Anthrax as a weapon There has been a great deal of concern that the bacteria that cause anthrax may be used as a type of biological warfare, since it is possible to become infected simply by inhaling the spores, and inhaled anthrax is the most serious form of the disease. Within one to two days, inflammation occurs around the raised area, and a blister forms around an area of dying tissue that becomes black in the center. If, however, they spread to the nearest lymph node (or, in rare cases, escape into the bloodstream), the bacteria can cause a form of blood poisoning that rapidly proves fatal. Inhalation anthrax Inhaling the bacterial spores can lead to a rare, often-fatal form of anthrax known as pulmonary or inhalation anthrax that attacks the lungs and sometimes spreads to the brain. Inhalation anthrax begins with flu-like symptoms, namely fever, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and shortness of breath.
Physical In some cases heart attack urine discount 40mg betapace otc, anxiety is produced by physical responses to stress arrhythmia reentry order betapace now, or by certain disease processes or medications. The nervous system of human beings is 'hard-wired' to respond to dangers or threats. These responses are not subject to conscious control, and are the same in humans as in many lower animals. They represent an evolutionary adaptation to the predators and other dangers with which all animals, including primitive humans, had to cope. The most familiar reaction of this type is often referred to as the 'fight-or-flight' response. It is a state of physiological and emotional hyperarousal marked by 455 high muscle tension and strong feelings of fear or anger. When a person has a fight-or-flight reaction, the level of stress hormones in the blood rises. The person becomes more alert and attentive, the eyes dilate, the heartbeat increases, the breathing rate increases, and the digestion slows down, allowing more energy to be available to the muscles. The limbic system cannot tell the difference between a real physical threat and an anxiety-producing thought or idea. The hypothalamus may trigger the release of stress hormones by the pituitary gland, even when there is no objective danger. When a person responds to a real danger, his or her body is aided by the stress hormones released. However if the individual does not make use of the stress hormones released, the body has to absorb all the biochemical changes of hyperarousal, rather than release them. These biochemical changes can produce anxious feelings, as well as muscle tension and other physical symptoms associated with anxiety. They may even produce permanent changes in the brain, if the process occurs repeatedly. Some chronic physical disorders, such as coronary artery disease, may be worsened by anxiety, as chronic hyperarousal can put stress on the heart, stomach, and other organs. Anxiety can be a symp- Anxiety drugs; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (like flurbiprofen and ibuprofen). Individuals who consume caffeine-rich foods and beverages, such as chocolate, cocoa, coffee, tea, or carbonated soft drinks (especially cola beverages), can sometimes lower their anxiety symptoms simply by reducing their intake of these substances. Withdrawal from certain prescription drugs, primarily beta blockers and corticosteroids, can cause anxiety. Some researchers in early childhood believe that there may be a link between anxiety and childhood memories of dependency. It is thought that this early experience of helplessness underlies the most common anxieties of adult life, including fear of powerlessness and fear of being unloved. Thus, adults may be made anxious by symbolic threats to their sense of competence and/or significant relationships, even though they are no longer helpless children. The psychoanalytic model gives considerable weight to the symbolic aspect of human anxiety; examples include phobic disorders, obsessions, compulsions, and other forms of anxiety that are highly individualized. The length of the human maturation process allows many opportunities for children and adolescents to connect their experiences with certain objects or events that can bring back feelings in later life. For example, a person who was frightened as a child by a tall man wearing glasses may feel panicky years later by something that reminds him of that person or experience without consciously knowing why. Other medical conditions that can produce anxiety include respiratory distress syndrome, mitral valve prolapse, porphyria, and chest pain caused by inadequate blood supply to the heart (angina pectoris). According to his theory, people feel anxious when they feel torn between desires or urges toward certain actions, on the one hand, and moral restrictions, on the other. For example, someone who feels anxious around money may be pulled between a desire to steal and the belief that stealing is wrong. Money becomes a symbol for the inner conflict between doing what is considered right and doing what one wants. Common phobias include agoraphobia (fear of open spaces), claustrophobia (fear of small or confined spaces), and social phobia. People frequently report feelings of high anxiety when they anticipate and, therefore, fear the loss of social approval or love. Social phobia is a specific anxiety disorder that is marked by high levels of anxiety or fear of embarrassment in social situations. People who belong to groups that are targets of bias are at higher risk for developing anxiety disorders. Some experts think, for example, that the higher rates panic disorder among women reflects their greater social and economic vulnerability. Some controversial studies indicate that the increase in violent or upsetting pictures and stories in news reports and entertainment may raise the anxiety level of many people. Stress and anxiety management programs often suggest that patients cut down their exposure to upsetting stimuli. People who must live or work around sudden or loud noises, bright or flashing lights, chemical vapors, or similar nuisances, which they cannot avoid or control, may develop heightened anxiety levels. Another factor that shapes human experiences of anxiety is knowledge of personal mortality. Some researchers think that awareness of death influences experiences of anxiety from the time that a person is old enough to understand death. These symptoms are produced by the hormonal, muscular, and cardiovascular reactions involved in the fight-or-flight reaction. Children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder show a high percentage of physical complaints. Behavioral symptoms of anxiety include pacing, trembling, general restlessness, hyperventilation, pressured speech, hand wringing, and finger tapping. Cognitive symptoms of anxiety include recurrent or obsessive thoughts, feelings of doom, morbid or fear-inducing thoughts or ideas, and confusion, or inability to concentrate. Feeling states associated with anxiety include tension or nervousness, feeling 'hyper' or 'keyed up,' and feelings of unreality, panic, or terror. When anxiety is untreated, the individual may use, consciously or unconsciously, a number of coping strategies. The person justifies the anxious feelings by saying that any normal person would feel anxious in this situation. The anxiety emerges in the form of physical complaints and illnesses, such as recurrent headaches, stomach upsets, or muscle and joint pain. The person converts anxious feelings into conspiracy theories or similar ideas without reality testing. Some instances of alcohol or drug use, abuse, or addiction may stem from attempts to self-medicate for anxiety. In these cases treating underlying anxiety along with issues of dependence may help the treatment be successful in the long run. Diagnosis the diagnosis of anxiety is difficult and complex because of the variety of its causes and the highly personalized and individualized nature of its symptoms. When a doctor examines an anxious patient, he or she will first rule out physical conditions and diseases that have anxiety as a symptom. Apart from these exclusions, the physical 457 examination is usually inconclusive. Some anxious patients may have their blood pressure or pulse rate affected by anxiety, or may look pale or perspire heavily, but others may appear physically completely normal. Many doctors will check a number of chemical factors in the blood, such as the level of thyroid hormone and blood sugar. Both barbiturates and benzodiazepines are potentially habit-forming and may cause withdrawal symptoms when stopped, but benzodiazepines are less likely than barbiturates to cause physical dependency. However, buspirone is not effective against certain types of anxiety, such as panic disorder. A newer drug that has been shown as effective as Paxil is called escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro). Because anxiety often coexists with symptoms of depression, many doctors prescribe antidepressant medications for patients with anxiety to help treat both problems.
Physical inactivity blood pressure high bottom number order betapace with a visa, diabetes blood pressure medication dizzy buy betapace with amex, and obesity are also risk factors for atherosclerosis. High levels of the amino acid homocysteine and abnormal levels of protein-coated fats called lipoproteins also raise the risk of coronary artery disease. The role of triglycerides, another fat that circulates in the blood, in forming atherosclerotic plaques is unclear. Obesity-Excess weight increases the strain on the heart and increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis even if no other risk factors are present. Risk factors that cannot be changed: Heredity-People whose parents have coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, or stroke at an early age are at increased risk. The high rate of severe hypertension among African-Americans puts them at increased risk. Age-Risk is higher in men who are 45 years of age and older and women who are 55 years of age and older. Severe coronary artery disease, however, may cause abnormal heart motion that is detected by echocardiography. Performed in a cardiology outpatient diagnostic laboratory, the test takes 30-60 minutes. Radionuclide angiography and thallium (or sestamibi) scanning enable physicians to see the blood flow through the coronary arteries and the heart chambers. A device that uses gamma rays to produce an image of the radioactive material (gamma camera) records pictures of the heart. Thallium scanning is usually done after an exercise stress test or after injection of a vasodilator, a drug to enlarge the blood vessels, like dipyridamole (Persantine). Thallium is injected, and the scan is done then and again four hours (and possibly 24 hours) later. Coronary angiography is the most accurate diagnostic method and the only one that requires entering the body (invasive procedure). A cardiologist inserts a catheter equipped with a viewing device into a blood vessel in the leg or arm and guides it into the heart. Coronary angiography is performed in a cardiac catheterization laboratory and takes from 30 minutes to two hours. Atherosclerosis Symptoms differ depending upon the location of the atherosclerosis. In the carotid (brain) arteries: Sudden dizziness, weakness, loss of speech, or blindness. In the femoral (leg) arteries: Disease of the blood vessels in the outer parts of the body (peripheral vascular disease) causes cramping and fatigue in the calves when walking. Diagnosis Physicians may be able to make a diagnosis of atherosclerosis during a physical exam by means of a stethoscope and gentle probing of the arteries with the hand (palpation). More definite tests are electrocardiography, echocardiography or ultrasonography of the arteries (for example, the carotids), radionuclide scans, and angiography. Exercise electrocardiography (stress test) is conducted while the patient exercises on a treadmill or a stationary bike. Patients who have less severe atherosclerosis may achieve adequate control through lifestyle changes and drug therapy. Many of the lifestyle changes that prevent disease progression-a low-fat, low-cholesterol 565 Atherosclerosis diet, losing weight (if necessary), exercise, controlling blood pressure, and not smoking-also help prevent the disease. Aspirin helps prevent thrombosis and a variety of other medications can be used to treat the effects of atherosclerosis. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery are invasive procedures that improve blood flow in the coronary arteries. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (coronary angioplasty) is a non-surgical procedure in which a catheter tipped with a balloon is threaded from a blood vessel in the thigh into the blocked artery. The balloon is inflated, compresses the plaque to enlarge the blood vessel, and opens the blocked artery. Coronary angioplasty is performed by a cardiologist in a hospital and generally requires a hospital stay of one or two days. It is successful about 90% of the time, but for one-third of patients the artery narrows again within six months. It can be repeated and a 'stent' may be placed in the artery to help keep it open. In coronary artery bypass surgery (bypass surgery), a detour is built around the blockage with a healthy vein or artery, which then supplies oxygenrich blood to the heart. It is major surgery appropriate for patients with blockages in two or three major coronary arteries or severely narrowed left main coronary arteries, and for those who have not responded to other treatments. It is performed in a hospital under general anesthesia and uses a heart-lung machine. Three other semi-experimental surgical procedures may be used to treat atherosclerosis. In atherectomy, a cardiologist shaves off and removes strips of plaque from the blocked artery. In laser angioplasty, a catheter with a laser tip is inserted to burn or break down the plaque. A metal coil called a stent may be permanently implanted to keep a blocked artery open. Alternatives Alternative therapies that focus on diet and lifestyle can help prevent, retard, or reverse atherosclerosis. Herbal therapies that may be helpful include: hawthorn 566 (Crataegus laevigata), notoginseng root (Panax notoginseng), garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), hot red or chili peppers, yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and alfalfa (Medicago sativum). Relaxation techniques including yoga, meditation, guided imagery, biofeedback, and counseling and other 'talking' therapies may also be useful to prevent or slow the progress of the disease. Dietary modifications focus on eating foods that are low in fats (especially saturated fats), cholesterol, sugar, and animal proteins and high in fiber and antioxidants (found in fresh fruits and vegetables). Liberal use of onions and garlic is recommended, as is eating raw and cooked fish, especially cold-water fish like salmon. Chelation therapy, which uses anticoagulant drugs and nutrients to dissolve plaque and flush it through the kidneys, is controversial. Long-term remedies can be prescribed by specialists in ayurvedic medicine, which combines diet, herbal remedies, relaxation and exercise, and homeopathy. New diagnostic techniques enable physicians to identify and treat atherosclerosis in its earliest stages. Prevention A healthy lifestyle-eating right, regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, and controlling hypertension-can reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis, help keep the disease from progressing, and sometimes cause it to regress. It includes a variety of foods that are low in fat and cholesterol and high in fiber; plenty of fruits and vegetables; and limited sodium. Fat should comprise no more than 30%, and saturated fat no more than 8-10%, of total daily calories according to the American Heart Association. Cholesterol should be limited to about 300 milligrams per day and sodium to about 2,400 milligrams. Mono-unsaturated oils, like olive and rapeseed (Canola) are good alternatives to use for cooking. Moderate to intense aerobic exercise lasting about 30 minutes (or three 10-minute exercise periods) four or more times per week is recommended, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Aerobic exercise includes walking, jogging, and cycling, active gardening, climbing stairs, or brisk housework. A physician should be consulted before exercise if a person has atherosclerosis or is at increased risk for it. Eating right and exercising are two key components in maintaining a desirable body weight. Do not smoke or use tobacco-Smoking has many adverse effects on the heart but quitting can repair damage. Ex-smokers face the same risk of heart disease as non-smokers within five to 10 years of quitting. Research has shown, however, that it is difficult to pick up the infection simply by walking barefoot over a contaminated damp floor.
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