Sana Mustapha Al-Khatib, MD
- Professor of Medicine
Chemical-specific biomarkers have the potential to provide critical information erectile dysfunction 4xorigional effective extra super avana 260mg, but there is an inherent complexity in pulling the information together online doctor erectile dysfunction purchase extra super avana with paypal. If biomarkers are considered a reflection of exposure or disease state erectile dysfunction medication risks discount 260mg extra super avana, then considerations have to be made regarding the interactions between genes and the environment and the difference between a population-based assessment and individual assessment (Groopman and Kensler erectile dysfunction pills in south africa discount 260 mg extra super avana, 1999) how does the erectile dysfunction pump work order extra super avana online from canada. Nowhere is the challenge for interpretation of early and highly sensitive response biomarkers clearer than in the complicated data from gene expression arrays (toxicogenomics). Our continued ability to monitor changes in response in thousands of genes has proven challenging for toxicologists. Toxicogenomics projects have confirmed the repeatability and cross-platform concordance of microarray data (Bammler et al. Microarray analysis for risk assessment requires sophisticated analyses beyond basic cluster analysis (Eisen et al. The Gene Ontology Consortium has developed a controlled vocabulary (ontology) for sharing biological information across species. A very good approach to integrated analysis of multiple omics datasets is Conceptgen (Sartor et al. There is a need for a note of caution for users of these riskrelevant databases as with most databases there is a need to consider multiple contributions to differences between recommended values. These differences can be due to variations in how and when new scientific information is incorporated in the evaluations. Also, different regulatory drivers for national values or issues related to legal priorities or delays in implementing draft to final recommended values can occur. Such factors have contributed to differences in arsenic and dioxin risk estimates in the United States. Recently, new toxicogenomic databases that identify and, in some cases, provide characterization of chemicals have become available. Its portfolio of comprehensive data and tools can be valuable for risk assessment and the aim to integrate with toxicologically relevant end points and disease is laudable. These databases can be especially useful for hazard identification and mechanistic information; few emphasize exposure information. Public demand for government regulations often focuses on involuntary exposures (especially in the food supply, drinking water, and air) and unfamiliar hazards, such as radioactive waste, electromagnetic fields, asbestos insulation, and genetically modified crops and foods. The public can respond negatively when they perceive that information about hazards or new technologies has been withheld or under-rated. Loss of trust is exemplified by Japanese reactions following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor meltdown (March 2011), where initial perceived benefits of nuclear power were transformed to distrust during follow-up actions and responses to the earthquake and tsunami. Environmental health is very dynamic and many divergent emerging environmental challenges such as climate change, energy shortages, and engineered nanoparticles will require an expansion of our context well beyond single-chemical, single-exposure scenarios. These factors include defining not only health but also well-being and sustainability and will require a context of global and international scale. Well-being is increasingly being used to describe human health and the goal of sustainable environmental risk management. Wellbeing goes beyond "disease-free" existence to freedom from want (including food and water security) and fear (personal safety) and sustainable futures. Concepts such as food security (abundance and quality of foods), water security (plentiful supplies and high quality of water), and sustainability form internationally recognized environmental and developmental goals. Sustainability embraces the risk management concept that "development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations" to thrive and hence well-being is one of the goals of environmental actions and decisions. Recognition that environmental problems are global is essential to our understanding of how we manage risks and how we address sustainability (Leiserowitz et al. Ocean health and air pollution are excellent examples of the need for understanding the global context where pollutants do not honor country and national borders. Understanding these behavioral responses at the individual, community, and population levels is critical in stimulating constructive risk communication and evaluating potential risk management options for risk assessment issues. In a classic study, students, League of Women Voters members, active club members, and scientific experts were asked to rank 30 activities or agents in order of their annual contribution to deaths (Slovic et al. Club members ranked pesticides, spray cans, and nuclear power as safer than did other laypersons. Students ranked contraceptives and food preservatives as riskier and mountain climbing as safer than did others. Experts ranked electric power, surgery, swimming, and x-rays as more risky, but nuclear power and police work as less risky than did laypersons. From studies like these, we now know that there are cultural and gender differences in perception of risks. There are also group differences in perceptions of risk from chemicals among toxicologists, correlated with their employment in industry, academia, or government (Neal et al. Recent risk perception research has emphasized the importance of knowing the balance between analytical thinking and "affect. Understanding this balance can help us explain why there is a complex relationship between perceived risk and benefits (Slovic, 2010). Psychological factors such as dread, perceived uncontrollability, and involuntary exposure interact with factors that represent the extent to which a hazard is familiar, observable, and "essential" for daily living (Lowrance, 1976; Morgan, 1993). Observable Known to those exposed, effect immediate, old risk, risks known to science. Risks in the upper right quadrant of this space are most likely to provoke calls for government regulation. Office of Research and Development realigned their research within a new structure of Chemical Safety for Sustainability; Sustainable and Healthy Communities; Safe and Sustainable Water Resources; and Air, Climate and Energy. Public health as a discipline is very compatible with toxicology, where toxicological tests are performed to identify and characterize potential health risks and to prevent the unsafe use of such agents. Public health also has an emphasis on approaches for identifying, characterizing, and preventing risks. Within public health risk management, there are three stages of prevention: primary, whose goal is prevention and risk or hazard avoidance; secondary, whose goal is mitigation or preparedness including risk or vulnerability reduction and risk transfer; and tertiary, where prompt response or recovery is an approach for decreasing residual risk or risk reduction (Frumkin, 2010). In this context, vulnerability assessment would include consideration of exposure and susceptibility as part of the vulnerability assessment. Hazard analysis refers to both hazard identification and probability-based frequency of anticipated events. Capacity assessment has been used for identifying strengths and resiliency of a system to impact. Recent disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, the Gulf Oil Spill, and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor meltdown all point to the need for environmental risk assessment to be considered as a part of an even larger context in order to understand critical infrastructure for determining human and environmental risks. The "built environment" encompasses all man-made resources and infrastructure, including buildings, spaces, and transportation systems, which support human activity and have a strong influence on public health (Perdue et al. These types of frameworks can allow for easier consideration of public health concepts for sustainability, environmental disaster response, and life-cycle systems analysis than many of our traditional frameworks for environmental chemical risk assessment, which can be done in relative isolation. This scheme shows a broad context for thinking about risk management that includes considerations of vulnerabilities and impact analysis frequently discussed in environmental engineering and public health. The objectives of risk assessments vary with the issues, risk management needs, and statutory requirements. The frameworks are sufficiently flexible to address various objectives and to accommodate new knowledge while also providing guidance for priority setting in industry, environmental organizations, and government regulatory and public health agencies. Toxicology, epidemiology, exposure assessment, and clinical observations can be linked with biomarkers, cross-species investigations of mechanisms of effects, and systematic approaches to risk assessment, risk communication, and risk management. Advances in toxicology are certain to improve the quality of risk assessments for a broad array of health end points as scientific findings substitute data for assumptions and help to describe and model uncertainty more credibly. Toxicology and epidemiology: improving the science with a framework for combining toxicological and epidemiological evidence to establish causal inference. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. Models for the in vitro assessment of neurotoxicity in the nervous system in relation to xenobiotic and neurotrophic factor-mediated events. The second National Toxicology Program comparative exercise on the prediction of rodent carcinogenicity: definitive results. Harmonization of cancer and noncancer risk assessment: proceedings of a consensus-building workshop. Standard probability density functions for routine use in environmental health risk assessment. Identification, characterization, and control of potential human carcinogens: a framework for federal decision-making. The asbestos case: a comment on the appointment and use of nonpartisan experts in World Trade Organization dispute resolution involving health risk. A summary of the findings and recommendations of the commission on risk assessment and risk management (and accompanying papers prepared for the commission). The Collaborative Cross at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: developing a powerful resource for systems genetics. Alternative models for carcinogenicity testing: weight of evidence evaluations across models. Calcium phosphate-containing precipitate and the carcinogenicity of sodium salts in rats. The application of genetic information for regulatory standard setting under the Clean Air Act: a decision-analytic approach. Probabilistic Techniques in Exposure Assessment: A Handbook for Dealing with Variability and Uncertainty in Models and Inputs. Gene ontology mapping as an unbiased method for identifying molecular pathways and processes affected by toxicant exposure: application to acute effects caused by the rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen diethylhexylphthalate. A framework for assessing risks to children from exposure to environmental agents. Quantitative estimates of soil ingestion in normal children between the ages of 2 and 7 years: population-based estimates using aluminum, silicon, and titanium as soil tracer elements. Nuclear waste transportation: case studies of identifying stakeholder risk information needs. The Hanford Openness Workshops: fostering open and transparent long-term decision making at the department of energy. LongTerm Management of Contaminated Sites (Research in Social Problems and Public Policy, Volume 13). Interindividual differences in response to chemoprotection against aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis: implications for human biotransformation enzyme polymorphisms. Role of cytochrome P4501a2 in chemical carcinogenesis-implications for human variability in expression and enzyme-activity. Total Water and Tapwater Intake in the United States: Population-based Estimates of Quantities and Sources. Characterization of data base and determination of no observed adverse effect levels. Modeling developmental processes in animals: applications in neurodevelopmental toxicology. Recommended distributions for exposure factors frequently used in health risk assessment. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. A computational model for neocortical neuronogenesis predicts ethanol-induced neocortical neuron number deficits. The role of cell death during neocortical neurogenesis and synaptogenesis: implications from a computational model for the rat and mouse. Computational models of neocortical neuronogenesis and programmed cell death in the developing mouse, monkey, and human. The magnitude of methylmercury-induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest is p53-dependent. The light at the end of the tunnel for chemical-specific biomarkers: daylight or headlight Cytochrome P450 3A5 genotype is correlated with acetylcholinesterase inhibition levels after exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Rat toxicogenomic study reveals analytical consistency across microarray platforms. Correlations between chemically related site-specific carcinogenic effects in long-term studies in rats and mice. Development of a refined database of mammalian relative potency estimates for dioxin-like compounds. The Murine Local Lymph Node Assay: A Test Method for Assessing the Allergic Contact Dermatitis Potential of Chemicals/ Compounds: the Results of an Independent Peer Review Evaluation. World Health Organization, United Nations Environment Programme, International Labour Organisation, and Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. Framing scientific analyses for risk management of environmental hazards by communities: case studies with seafood safety issues. Human genome epidemiology: translating advances in human genetics in to population-based data for medicine and public health. Epigenetic mechanisms of mouse interstrain variability in genotoxicity of the environmental toxicant 1,3-butadiene. Policy implications of genetic information on regulation under the Clean Air Act: the case of particulate matter and asthmatics.
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Saddle Nose Deformity and Tip Ptosis: Depression of dorsum of nose in supratip area and tip ptosis occurs when too much of septal cartilage is removed along the dorsal border impotence 40 years buy 260mg extra super avana visa. Flapping of Nasal Septum: In this condition two mucoperichondrial flaps move with respiration to the right or left erectile dysfunction treatment homeveda order discount extra super avana online. Treatment: It consists of removal of packing (which may be the cause) erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery purchase 260 mg extra super avana overnight delivery, proper hydration of patient erectile dysfunction treatment spray proven 260 mg extra super avana, maintenance of blood pressure and administration of proper antibiotics erectile dysfunction pills review purchase extra super avana 260mg online. Synechia: Injuries of mucosal fold and turbinates at the same level can lead to formation of adhesions. Deformed Septal Cartilage: It can be corrected by scoring, cross hatching, morcelizing, shaving or wedge excision. Other Options: Septorhinoplasty: Some cases need separation of septal cartilage from upper lateral cartilages, implantation of cartilage either in the columella or dorsum of nose. Closure: Trans-septal sutures keep the mucoperichondrial flaps together and prevent hematoma. Smr: the complete removal of septal cartilage results in supratip depression of cartilaginous nasal dorsum. Canine fossa approaches in endoscopic sinus surgery-Our experience Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Endoscopic Septoturbinoplasty: Our Update Series: Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Functional anatomy of the uncinate process and its role in endoscopic sinus surgery. Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy and retrograde nasolacrimal duct dilatation with cannulation: our experience. Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy with conventional instruments: results and advantages over external Dacryocystorhinostomy. Comparative study of endoscopic aided septoplasty and traditional septoplasty in posterior nasal septal deviations. Conv entional Dacryocystorhinostomy Versus Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy-A Comparative Study. Endoscopic endonasal emergency management of bilateral choanal atresia in new-borns. Coagulation screening: Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time and platelet count. Hypertrophy of tonsils causing Excessive snoring or sleep disturbances Obstructive sleep apnea Cor pulmonale 568 Dysphagia Interfere with speech. Obstructive tonsils in infectious mononucleosis not responding to medical therapy. Uncontrolled systemic disease such as diabetes, cardiac disease, hypertension or asthma. Section 8 indicationS for adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy may be done alone or in combination with tonsillectomy. Coblation: this technology utilizes the radio- frequency bipolar electrical current. It has been used for completion of tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy (for small adenoid pads and not for large obstructive adenoids), and intracapsular tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy in which tonsil is debulked). Tonsillotomy leaves behind small amount of tonsil tissue covering the constrictor muscle. Powered instrumentation: Microdebrider shaver allows precise, rapid and safe removal of tissue. No solid food by mouth for 8 hours; clear liquids may be allowed for 3 hours before surgery. Examination: Nasopharynx and adenoids are examined after retracting the soft palate with curved end of the tongue depressor. Introduce a proper size of adenoid curette with guard in to nasopharynx and feel the posterior border of nasal septum. Incision: the mucous membrane where it reflects from the tonsil to anterior pillar is incised either with sharp instrument or electrocautery. Electrocautery must not touch metal instruments such as mouth gag and Yankauer suction. Tonsil dissector and anterior pillar retractor dissect the tonsil and retract the anterior pillar to inspect the fossa for any bleeding. When firmly closed, the snare crushes and cuts the pedicle and minimizes the bleeding. Packing: A gauze sponge placed in tonsillar fossa for few minutes obtains pressure hemostasis. Irrigation and cleaning: Irrigate nasopharynx, oral and nasal cavity thoroughly and evacuate secretions and blood clots from laryngopharynx. Reactionary hemorrhage: Bleeding after the recovery from anesthesia on the day of surgery is usually controlled by removing the clot, applying pressure or vasoconstrictor. Immediate postoperative bleeding from nose and mouth or vomiting of dark colored blood and rising pulse rate indicate bleeding from the operative site. In cases of refractory bleeding, patient is taken back to operation room and ligation or electrocoagulation of the bleeding vessels is done under general anesthesia. Eustachian tube, pharyngeal musculature and vertebrae injuries during adenoidectomy can be prevented by avoiding hyperextension of neck and undue pressure of curette. Aspiration and foreign bodies: Such as blood, tissue of tonsil or adenoids or tooth. Clinical features: the common presentation is bloodstained sputum but bleeding may be profuse. Post-tonsillectomy earache: this referred otalgia occurs through the glossopharyngeal nerve. A randomized control trial to verify the efficacy of Pre-operative intravenous tranexamic acid in the control of tonsillectomy bleeding. He who is overcautious about himself falls in to dangers at every step; he who is afraid of losing honor respect, gets only disgrace; he who is always afraid of loss always loses. The larynx, hypopharynx and oropharynx are visualized directly with the help of laryngoscope. It can be fixed on the chest by a chest piece so that hands of the surgeon remain free for the surgery. Other types of laryngoscopy have been described in chapter Laryngeal Symptoms and Examination of section Larynx, Trachea and Bronchus. Therapeutic Benign swellings: Removal of papilloma, fibroma, vocal nodule, polyp or cyst contrainDicationS Lesions of cervical spines Stridor (usually need prior tracheostomy) Recent coronary occlusion Cardiac decompensation. Neck is flexed on thorax and head is extended on atlanto-occipital joint (barking dog position). Structures examined: the structures, which are examined serially, include tongue base, valleculae, epiglottis, pyriform sinuses, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids, postcricoid region, false cords, anterior and posterior commissure, ventricles, vocal cords, subglottic region and mobility of vocal cords and arytenoids. Do not biopsy both sides of the vocal folds (such as nodules) close to the anterior commissure to prevent formation of web poStoperatiVe care inDicationS For bronchoScopy 575 Position: Patient is kept in coma position, which prevents aspiration of blood and secretions. Vocal cord paralysis Collection of bronchial secretions: Culture and sensitivity, acid-fast bacilli, fungus, or malignant cells. Tidal volume through closed system or open system of side port Venturi jet ventilation. Observation: Watch for any spitting of blood, respiratory distress (inspiratory stridor, suprasternal retraction) and cyanosis. Protection of teeth and lips: Examine the patient for neck stability, loose teeth and dentures. Left hand thumb retracts the upper lip and teeth while index finger lifts lower teeth. Left hand thumb retracts the upper lip and teeth while index finger lifts lower teeth and guides the introduction of bronchoscope with bevel up. Bronchoscope is introduced either directly or after exposing the glottis with the help of a spatular type laryngoscope especially in infants, young children and short neck or thick tongue patients. Tracheobronchial tree: Gradually advance the scope and examine the entire tracheobronchial tree. Head and neck are flexed to the left while examining the right bronchial tree and to the right for left side bronchial tree. Telescope: Straight and angled telescopes provide magnification and facilitate detailed examination. Collection of secretions: Collect secretions for exfoliative cytology, or bacteriologic examination. Videoscopes: High-resolution true-color rendition of the image captured by the true color-chip charged couple device cameras embedded in distal tip of scopes. The assistant, instrument table, light source, suction and video are on right side of surgeon. Section 8 anesthesia It is usually done under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Lubrication of scope: Lubricate proper size esophagoscope with liquid paraffin or xylocaine jelly. Cricopharyngeal sphincter (upper esophageal sphincter): Keep the tip of esophagoscope in midline and behind the larynx. Slow, gentle and sustained pressure of the scope tip on the cricopharyngeal sphincter opens it. During this time, head of the patient is slightly lowered, which brings the esophageal lumen in the line of the scope. The head, which is slightly higher than the shoulders, is moved slightly to the right. Withdrawing: Inspect the esophageal wall again while withdrawing the esophagoscope. There are separate channels for optics, suctioning (secretions), insufflations, and instruments (for biopsy, foreign bodies, sclerotherapy and laser ablation). Compression of trachea: It may occur especially in children when esophagoscope is pressed on posterior tracheal wall. It causes obstruction to respiration and cyanosis and needs immediate withdrawal of esophagoscope. Lubricated scope (with xylocaine jelly) is introduced in to the mouth through a plastic mouth block. Narrow channel limits the size of instruments and removal of certain foreign bodies. Foreign body cannot be retracted in to the endoscope (like rigid esophagoscope) so more chances of injuring esophagus. Laryngopharynx and proximal one-third esophagus (less distensible with insufflations) may not be examined adequately. The figures show quite good number of instruments but the description covers only frequently asked instruments. Uses: They are used for nasal packing, ear dressing and removal of foreign bodies. The black or dull finished speculums are used in operations and prevent reflection of light. For the method of examination, see chapter "Nasal Symptoms and Examination" in section "Nose and Paranasal Sinuses". Postnasal mirror: Mirror is smaller than laryngeal mirror and the shaft is bayonet-shaped. It looks similar to the antral washing cannula, in which opening is not at the tip but a little proximal to it. Applying cotton to clean the ear of discharge while the other end (ring curette) is used to remove the wax and foreign body figs 5A to e: Eustachian tube instruments. For details of the operations and more instruments, see chapter "Middle Ear and Mastoid Surgeries". Use: It is used for the irrigation of maxillary sinus through the nasoantral inferior meatus window after intranasal antrostomy or Caldwell-Luc operation. When they are closed, there remains a gap between the blades that prevent the crushing of the nasal septum. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: It is used to remove the medial wall of lacrimal groove. Endoscopic sinus surgery: For manipulating uncinate process, middle meatus and bulla ethmoidalis. Caldwell-Luc operation: For canine fossa antrostomy and opening the maxillary antrum. Uses: It is used for elevating the periosteum and soft tissues in Caldwell-Luc operation and mastoidectomy operation.
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Dysphagia may increase after a few swallows erectile dysfunction statistics extra super avana 260mg without prescription, which fill the pouch with the food and then presses on the esophagus erectile dysfunction viagra dosage order extra super avana 260mg with visa. Lymphatic: Depending on the part of esophagus cervical erectile dysfunction protocol guide cheap extra super avana 260mg otc, mediastinal or celiac nodes may be enlarged erectile dysfunction drugs history order 260 mg extra super avana fast delivery. Most common symptom is gradually progressive dysphagia first to solids and then to liquids erectile dysfunction drugs buy buy extra super avana 260mg without a prescription. Upper two-third esophagus: Radiotherapy is preferred as the great vessels and involvement of mediastinal nodes, make the surgery difficult. Watch for sign of airway obstruction because airway control must be the prime concern. Watch for features of mediastinitis (such as tachycardia, chest pain, fever, sepsis) and peritonitis. Endoscopic self-expandable metal stenting for advanced carcinoma oesophagus: A better palliative prospective. Controversies and dilemmas in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease: a new paradigm of airway manifestations of a gastrointestinal disease. Patient protrudes out the tongue, which is wrapped in a piece of gauze cloth and then held by the examiner between the thumb and middle finger. To prevent fogging, a laryngeal mirror is always warmed over a spirit lamp or in hot water. Examiner should keep in mind that reactions to topical xylocaine or vasovagal attack can occur. Merits Higher resolution and brighter picture Better color contrast differentiates subtle lesions and vascular changes More accurate magnification shows small lesions Topical anesthesia usually not required. Method Topical anesthesia (topical xylocaine spray): It is usually not required, but may be used if needed. This outdoor procedure provides a good view of the larynx, laryngopharynx, subglottis and even upper trachea. Merits Larynx can be examined during speech (especially spasmodic dysphonia) and singing Glottic gap size appears more accurate Simultaneous examination of nose and nasopharynx Well-tolerated by patients with strong gag reflex or a young child Sniffing through nose allows assessment of subtle motion changes Topical anesthesia facilitates closure examination of vocal folds, epiglottis and trachea. Demerits Light transport and magnification inferior to rigid endoscope Loss of resolution due to fiber bundles (subtle-to-small mucosal changes may be missed) Illumination decreases as the scope is moved away from the tissue Distortion of the periphery of image Seems more invasive than rigid scope Risks of nose bleed. In the nasopharynx, the tip of the scope is directed downward with the help of positioning lever of the scope. Take the help of positioning lever of the scope to direct the tip of the scope to view any specific area. If secretions obstruct the lens either brush it against the mucosa or ask the patient to swallow when the scope is in oropharynx. Features of laryngeal irritation or extraesophageal reflux are edema, erythema and surface irregularities of posterior larynx. Effect of coughing or swallowing: They clear the mucous and differentiate from underlying lesion. Laryngeal diadochokinesis "hee" Sustained "ee" Quick sniffing through nose Speaking Singing Swallowing Valsalva maneuver. In extreme cases, ventricular folds touch and may even vibrate and this condition is called dysphonia plica ventricularis, which may be a primary disorder or secondary (compensatory) to other lesions such as incomplete glottic closure. It is caused by laryngeal dysfunction (variations of periodicity and intensity of consecutive sound waves). Strobe light illuminates vocal folds at different points of different vibration cycles and creates illusion of slow motion (Table 2). Trial therapy or laryngeal manipulation tablE 3 Infections Neoplasms Trauma Paralysis Causes of hoarseness of voice (laryngeal disorders) Acute and chronic laryngitis: Influenza, exanthematous fever, laryngotracheobronchitis, diphtheria, tuberculosis, syphilis, scleroma, atrophic laryngitis Papilloma (solitary and multiple), hemangioma, chondroma, angiofibroma, fibroma, leukoplakia, vocal nodule, vocal polyp, amyloid tumor, contact ulcers, or cancer Submucosal hemorrhage, laryngeal trauma (blunt and sharp), foreign bodies, intubation Paralysis of recurrent or superior laryngeal or both nerves Arthritis or fixation of cricoarytenoid joints Cysts and laryngocele Dysphonia plica ventricularis, myxedema, gout, hysterical aphonia 473 Fixation of cords Congenital Miscellaneous Chapter 45 w Abnormal size: Edema or tumor of vocal cord, partial surgical excision or fibrosis. Abnormal stiffness: Decrease in paralysis; increase in spastic dysphonia or fibrosis. Severity of airway obstruction the severity of airway obstruction has been categorized in three grades: I. Potential or impending obstruction: It can be the result of a known anatomical or physical disorder in which respiratory physiology or level of consciousness changes. In cases of smokers and elderly people, hoarseness that persists for more than 3 weeks, malignancy vocal cord should be ruled out. Investigations: Laboratory investigations Radiological examination Microlaryngoscopy and biopsy of the lesions Bronchoscopy Esophagoscopy. Voice and Speech disorders See chapter Speech and Voice Disorders in section Larynx, Tracheal and Bronchus. Depending upon the general status of the patient, the assessment can include following elements. It is an abnormal (stridulent or harsh) noise that is caused by a turbulent airflow in the impaired airway. Expiratory stridor: Expiratory stridor and prolonged expiratory phase are because of bronchial and low tracheal obstruction. History and physical Examination of Upper airway the clinical manifestations of impaired airway may include dyspnea and stridor, voice change (hoarseness), cough, local pain, restlessness, indrawing of intercostals, suprasternal, and supraclavicular spaces, and drooling. Congenital: Laryngeal web, laryngomalacia, cysts, vocal cord paralysis, subglottic stenosis. Traumatic: Physical/chemical/thermal injury, external laryngeal trauma, foreign bodies, iatrogenic (bronchoscopy, or prolonged intubation). Congenital: Vascular rings, esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, congenital goiter, and cystic hygroma. Obstructive sleep apnea w larynx, trachea and bronchus Severity: Severity of subcostal, intercostals and suprasternal recession is an indicator of the severity of airway impairment. Effect of position: Prone position: Stridor of laryngomalacia, micrognathia, macroglossia and innominate artery compression disappears when baby lies in prone position. Improvement: Airway improvement during crying occurs in gross nasal obstruction, such as bilateral choanal atresia. Progress: Gradual: A gradual increase in severity of stridor implies subglottic hemangioma, mediastinal mass and cancer of upper airway. Rapid: Rapid progression of airway impairment with drooling is hallmark of acute epiglottitis, whereas bacterial tracheitis and laryngotracheobronchitis have relatively prolonged course. Fever: Associated fever indicates infective condition such as laryngitis, epiglottitis, laryngotracheobronchitis or diphtheria. Sequential auscultation: Sequential auscultation with stethoscope over the nose, open mouth, neck and the chest helps in localizing the site of obstruction. Active resuscitation: Such as setting up humidified oxygen and preparation for intubation/tracheostomy. In cases of inadequate ventilation, airway must be secured through either medical or surgical means (Box 4). Expiratory and inspiratory films (in older children): Diaphragmatic immobility is seen on the side of foreign body obstruction. Bronchography with safer nonionic contrast media: Demonstrates tracheobronchial stenosis and malacia. Microlaryngoscopy: See Chapter Endoscopies in section of Operative Procedures and Instruments. Severe subglottic stenosis, impacted foreign body, advanced epiglottitis and laryngeal aplasia make intubation impossible. Ventilating bronchoscope: If the secretions are very thick, viscid and tenacious and airway impairment persists after intubation, a ventilating bronchoscope is passed to examine and see for foreign body. Endoscopy for foreign bodies: Topical adrenaline use before foreign body removal, decongest mucosa and reduces bleeding. Cricoid split: Cricoid split, which decompress the cricoid ring in cases of subglottic edema or soft immature stenosis, is indicated in neonates who fail extubation and weighs more than 1. If medical techniques fail, an urgent tracheotomy or cricothyrotomy must be performed, though it is rarely required. Outcome analysis of benign vocal cord lesions by videostroboscopy, acoustic analysis and voice handicap index. The chronic infections (such as tuberculosis, leprosy and syphilis) of larynx are mainly seen in adults and exist for weeks to months. They usually present with hoarseness and pain and must be distinguished from malignancy. Etiology/risk Factors Following are some etiologic and risk factors of larynx infections: Viral infections. Vocal abuse Allergy Thermal or chemical burns of larynx due to inhalation or ingestion of certain substances. Epiglottitis: the characteristic features include abrupt onset of high-grade fever, dysphagia, dyspnea, and hoarseness and toxic appearance without preceding and family history of cold-like symptoms (Table 2). After several days of cold symptoms child develops hoarseness and brassy and barking croupy cough. Stridor and dyspnea may lead to hypoxia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, hypoventilation and eventually death. Steroids: They reduce edema due to its anti-inflammatory effect, vasoconstriction and reduced vascular permeability. Racemic adrenaline (a mixture of d and L isomer) via nebulizer or respirator helps in reducing edema due to its vasoconstriction action. Tongue depressor and indirect laryngoscopy examination can cause reflex laryngospasm and cardiorespiratory arrest and are not done in these cases. Foreign body respiratory passage: the child will come with choking or coughing, but no evidence of infection like fever. Occupational factors: Exposure to dust and fumes, such as in miners, gold or ironsmiths and chemical industries workers. Tubercle bacilli may reach the larynx by bronchogenic, lymphatic or hematogenous routes. Tuberculosis involves posterior part of larynx and common sites in order of decreasing frequency include interarytenoid region, ventricular bands, vocal cords and epiglottis. Laryngeal mucosa may become red and swollen due to cellular infiltration (pseudoedema). Lesions: Nonspecific inflammation to nodular, exophytic lesion or mucosal ulceration. The larynx is the second most common site of leprosy involvement in head and neck after the nose (ulceration and perforation). LuPuS this indolent tubercle infection is usually associated with lupus of nose and pharynx and involves the anterior part of larynx. Vocal cords have sparse subepithelial connective tissue (See laryngeal causes of stridor and its treatment in chapter Laryngeal Symptoms and Examination). Acute epiglottitis: It is common in children and is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B. It produces a typical "Thumb sign" on lateral X-ray film, which though is usually not ordered. Acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup): this disease of children is caused by parainfluenza virus type 1, 2, and sometimes 3 and produces subglottic edema of larynx. Laryngeal tuberculosis: Mouse nibbled appearance of vocal cords is the characteristic feature of laryngeal tuberculosis. If you think yourselves weak, weak you will be; if you think yourselves strong, strong you will be. Others are rare and include pleomorphic adenoma or oncocytoma, rhabdomyoma, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma, lipoma and fibroma. The risk factors of these vocal fold mucosal disorders are following: An expressive and talkative persons: Most common Occupational: Extreme vocal demands, which may be related to family life, childcare, politics, religion, athletics, musical rehearsal and performance Tobacco smoking Alcohol Insufficient fluid intake Infection Allergy Gastroesophageal reflux disease Iatrogenic factors: Medicines (dryness of secretions), endotracheal intubation and laryngeal instrumentations. It is at the junction of anterior onethird and posterior two-thirds of the free edge of vocal cord. Initially nodules appear soft, reddish and edematous but later on they look grayish or white in color. Always bilateral at the junction of anterior one-third and posterior two-thirds of the free edges of vocal cords. Patient is instructed not to speak for 4 days and gradually progression over 6 weeks to full voice. Diplophonia (double voice) in some patients due to different vibratory frequencies of the two vocal cords. Soft and smooth (dark and hemorrhagic in early stages) and may become pedunculated, which then flop up and down the glottis during respiration or phonation. Surgery: Microlaryngoscopy superficial surgical excision followed by speech therapy. Voice therapy Microlaryngoscopy: Polyp reduction with mucosal sparing for epithelialization (vocal cord stripping may lead to aphonia, high and husky voice). Endoscopic corticosteroid injection in to the base of granuloma before removal is suggested. Lateral saccular cyst is large and may extend in to the false cord, aryepiglottic fold and pyriform fossa and may appear in the neck through thyrohyoid membrane. External approach for large lateral cysts: Midline or lateral thyrotomy approach through thyrohyoid membrane. Internal: It remains confined within the larynx and presents as distension of false cord and aryepiglottic fold. External: Here distended saccule herniates through the thyrohyoid membrane and presents in neck.
Bahira (Terminalia). Extra Super Avana.
- What other names is Terminalia known by?
- What is Terminalia?
- Treating chest pain (angina) after a heart attack, when used with conventional medications.
- Treating congestive heart failure (CHF), when used with conventional medications.
- How does Terminalia work?
- Earaches, HIV infection, lung conditions, severe diarrhea, urinary problems, water retention, and other conditions.
- Are there safety concerns?
- Dosing considerations for Terminalia.
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