Timothy Patrick Donahue, MD
- Assistant Professor of Medicine
An open-label study of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in severe childhood asthma diabetic ketoacidosis lab values cheap 0.5mg repaglinide free shipping. Prospective baby diabetes signs symptoms order cheap repaglinide line, doubleblind diabetes test levels buy line repaglinide, placebo-controlled diabetes jdrf order cheapest repaglinide and repaglinide, multicentre study on the effect of highdose blood sugar vs glucose discount repaglinide 2 mg online, intravenous immunoglobulin in children and adolescents with severe bronchial asthma. Effects of high dose intravenous immunoglobulin in two severe corticosteroid insensitive asthmatic patients. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid reduction in asthmatic subjects treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Management of steroid-dependent asthma with methotrexate: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Low-dose methotrexate spares steroid usage in steroid-dependent asthmatic patients: a meta-analysis. A distinct entity with few eosinophils and relatively more neutrophils in the airway submucosa Recent asthma exacerbations predict future exacerbations in children with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. Pattern of airway inflammation and its determinants in children with acute severe asthma. A proof-of-concept, randomized, controlled trial of omalizumab in patients with severe, difficult-tocontrol, nonatopic asthma. Alveolar nitric oxide in adults with asthma: evidence of distal lung inflammation in refractory asthma. Measurement of bronchial and alveolar nitric oxide production in normal children and children with asthma. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus inhaled steroid maintenance for chronic asthma in adults and children. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy: a new strategy in Paediatrics asthma. The effects of low-dose theophylline on the bronchial wall infiltrate after allergen challenge. Theophylline accelerates human granulocyte apoptosis not via phosphodiesterase inhibition. Theophylline induces neutrophil apoptosis through adenosine A2A receptor antagonism. Histone acetylase and deacetylase activity in alveolar macrophages and blood mononocytes in asthma. Prevention by theophylline of beta-2-receptor down regulation in healthy subjects. Clinical trial of low-dose theophylline and montelukast in patients with poorly controlled asthma. Fungal sensitization in childhood persistent asthma is associated with disease severity. Combination formoterol and inhaled steroid versus beta2-agonist as relief medication for chronic asthma in adults and children. Short-course montelukast for intermittent asthma in children: a randomized controlled trial. Determining asthma treatment by monitoring sputum cell counts: effect on exacerbations. Use of sputum eosinophil counts to guide management in children with severe asthma. Longitudinal relationship between sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma. A systematic review and metaanalysis: tailoring asthma treatment on eosinophilic markers (exhaled nitric oxide or sputum eosinophils). In the most recent study, Rochat and colleagues7 followed 1314 healthy children from birth to 13 years of age. Allergic rhinitis present at 5 years of age was found to be a significant predictor for developing wheezing between 5 and 13 years of age, with an adjusted relative risk of 3. These longitudinal studies, taken together, strongly support the role of allergic rhinitis in childhood or adolescence as a risk factor for developing subsequent asthma. In children younger than 2 years of age, it has been more difficult to prospectively assess the progression of allergic rhinitis to asthma, in part due to the high prevalence of viral upper respiratory tract infections in this age group. In the study by Rochat,7 children with allergic rhinitis diagnosed by 2 years of age were not at increased risk of developing wheezing between 5 and 13 years of age. The authors noted that rhinitis at 2 years of age is usually not a persistent condition and will often remit as the child grows older. In a second study, Ferdousi and colleagues11 followed up a much smaller group of children (n = 28) for only 2 years. Despite a wealth of data supporting an association between the upper and lower airways, not until recently have reliable data emerged that suggest that upper airway disease is a risk factor for the development of asthma and that experimentally induced nasal dysfunction causes asthma to worsen. In addition, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating that appropriate treatment of nasal allergy and chronic sinus disease results in improvements in asthma symptoms and lower airway function. In this articler, data from a variety of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory studies will be highlighted to help clarify our understanding of these complex and important relationships. In a study that utilized a standardized and detailed questionnaire in 478 patients across all age groups, rhinitis was found to be a nearly universal phenomenon in patients with allergic asthma, occurring in 99% of adults and 93% of adolescents. Settipane and colleagues5 published the first prospective study regarding the relationship between allergic rhinitis and the development of asthma. In a study that spanned 23 years from entry to completion, 690 adolescents who had allergic rhinitis (without chest symptoms) developed asthma 3 times more often (10. In another prospective study, Burgess and coworkers6 enrolled 8583 children, beginning at 7 years of age, and evaluated them at 13 and 43 years of age. Over the past two decades, our understanding of the connection between the nose, paranasal sinuses, and lungs has evolved significantly. A growing body of population-based studies has established that allergic rhinitis in children acts as a critical independent risk factor for the development of asthma and that specific allergen immunotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk for developing asthma by approximately 50%. A number of physiologic mechanisms underlie the apparent connection between the upper and lower airways, particularly the systemic spread of inflammation from the nose and sinuses to the lungs. A large number of studies have examined the effect of nasal and sinus therapy, including both medical and surgical treatments, on subjective and objective parameters of asthma. While there is a paucity of randomized, blinded studies, the existing data do suggest that treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis have a beneficial effect on asthma symptoms, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. These studies support the theory that bronchial hyperreactivity may represent an intermediate phase between nasal allergy and symptomatic asthma and may help identify children and adolescents at highest risk for developing asthma. Pharmaco-economic studies from the past decade have attempted to correlate the presence of rhinitis with asthma severity and health care costs attributable to asthma. In an analysis of a database of 1261 children with asthma, Huse and colleagues12 compared patients with significant nasal allergy with those who had mild or no symptoms of nasal disease. These investigators noted that patients with more severe rhinitis were much more likely to have nocturnal awakening caused by asthma (19. Similarly, Halpern and coworkers13 observed that patients with symptomatic rhinitis used more asthma medications, particularly more inhaled and supplemental oral corticosteroids. Judging from these recent investigations, one can postulate that allergic rhinitis may also be related to increased asthma severity and the use of more potent antiasthma medications. Although these data suggest that rhinitis may be contributing to asthma, an alternative explanation for this association may be that nasal inflammation is a marker for increasing dysfunction of the entire respiratory tract. The possibility of a cause-and-effect relationship is better addressed by therapeutic studies of rhinitis therapy in patients with asthma. It has been speculated that allergic rhinitis may add a significant burden of disease to patients with asthma. A survey of approximately 800 parents of children with asthma attempted to determine the impact of nasal disease upon their quality of life. Importantly, parents (79%) reported worsening asthma symptoms when nasal symptoms were most active, and many (56%) avoided the outdoors during the allergy season because of worsening asthma symptoms. The majority of the parents (60%) indicated difficulty in effectively treating both conditions, and 72% were concerned about using excessive medication. Information collected from this study and other similar data indicate that allergic rhinitis does impose a significant additional symptomatic burden on patients with asthma. These abnormalities are generally less pronounced than those of asthmatic patients,19 but sometimes, the findings in subjects with rhinitis are indistinguishable from those in subjects with mild asthma. However, there have been relatively few well-controlled, large-scale clinical trials that have attempted to quantify this effect. A large number of studies have examined the composition of inflammatory cell infiltrates in the nasal and bronchial mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The presence of histamine in the lower airways has been correlated with bronchial obstruction,24 and histamine has long been thought to play a role in bronchial asthma. However, early studies of first-generation antihistamines in adolescents and adults showed minimal improvements in bronchial asthma, and initial small trials of second-generation antihistamines yielded mixed results. Grant and colleagues27 demonstrated that seasonal symptoms of rhinitis and asthma were significantly attenuated in patients treated with cetirizine 10 mg once daily in a large group of adolescents and adult patients. In reviewing data from these and similar trials, it is difficult to determine whether the salutary effects of antihistamines in asthma can be attributed to direct effects on lower airway physiology or to improvements in rhinitis. Because many of the currently available agents appear to have weak or transient effects on resting airway tone, benefits to the lower airway may be due to modulation of upper airway function. In the nested case-control study of rhinitis therapy and asthma outcomes, the use of second-generation oral antihistamines was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward lower risk of asthma-related emergency room visits and hospitalization. These studies demonstrate that treatment of rhinitis may result in improvements in a number of asthma outcomes and suggest that nasal disease contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on the data in these studies, treatment of rhinitis may reduce symptoms of mild asthma to such an extent that the requirement for asthma therapy may be reduced or even eliminated. A variety of theories have been invoked, including both direct and indirect effects of nasal dysfunction on the lower airways. Systemic Effects of Nasal Inflammation on the Lower Airways Research over the past few years has demonstrated that several inflammatory mediators produced during allergic reactions may enter the systemic circulation. Experimental nasal allergen challenge has been shown to induce both peripheral blood eosinophilia29 and activation of peripheral blood leukocytes. Braunstahl and colleagues performed a nasal provocation study, suggesting a link between systemic inflammation and changes in airway inflammation and function. Further supporting this interaction between the upper and lower airways, Braunstahl and colleagues31 also found increased inflammatory markers in the nasal mucosa following the instillation of allergen into the lower airways of subjects with allergic rhinitis. Given this emerging evidence, it is likely that systemic factors do play a critical role in the interaction between the upper and lower airways. Whereas Yan and Salome37 investigated subjects with perennial, symptomatic nasal disease, the majority of other studies examined asymptomatic patients outside their pollen season. Certainly, a substantial degree of heterogeneity exists between patients in their lower airway response to nasal stimulation. In addition to neurally mediated bronchospasm, it has been postulated that a nasal allergic reaction might result in an alteration in lower airway responsiveness. Corren and colleagues39 investigated the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nonspecific bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Ten subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma were selected for study; all patients related worsening of their asthma to the onset of hay fever symptoms. Nonspecific bronchial responsiveness was significantly increased 30 minutes after nasal challenge and persisted for 4 hours. Because radionuclide studies demonstrated no evidence of allergen deposition into the lungs, it seems unlikely that these increases in airway reactivity can be attributed to direct effects of allergen. In addition, the rapidity with which these changes occurred suggests the possibility of a reflex mechanism. Nasal-Bronchial Reflex Early mechanistic studies investigated the effects of several mucosal irritants on lower airway function in normal human subjects. In 1969, Kaufman and Wright34 applied silica particles onto the nasal mucosa of individuals without lower airway disease and noted significant, immediate increases in lower airway resistance. Bronchospasm induced by nasal silica was blocked by both resection of the trigeminal nerve35 and systemic administration of atropine. Fontanari and coworkers36 recently reevaluated the possibility of a neural connection between the upper and lower airways by using cold, dry air as the nasal stimulus. These investigators demonstrated that nasal exposure to very cold air caused an immediate and profound increase in pulmonary resistance that was prevented by both topical nasal anesthesia and cholinergic blockade induced by inhalation of ipratropium bromide. Both these studies strongly suggest the presence of a reflex involving irritant receptors in the upper airway (afferent limb) and cholinergic nerves in the lower airway (efferent limb). Subsequent studies used challenge materials considered to be more biologically relevant to allergic rhinitis, including histamine, whole pollen particles, and allergen extracts. Importantly, radiolabeling studies were performed as part of this study that demonstrated that histamine was not deposited into the lower airways. However, other studies that used histamine38 or allergen39 failed to demonstrate bronchoconstriction after nasal provocation. This discrepancy in results may be partly Mouth Breathing Caused by Nasal Obstruction Nasal blockage resulting from tissue swelling and secretions may cause a shift from the normal pattern of nasal breathing to predominantly mouth breathing. Previous work has shown that mouth breathing associated with nasal obstruction resulted in worsening of exercise-induced bronchospasm, whereas exclusive nasal breathing significantly reduced asthma after exercise.
Consensus statement for the diagnosis and treatment of drug-induced lung injuries blood sugar issues generic repaglinide 2mg on-line. Conclusion Lung injury caused by pharmacologic agents is recognized increasingly as a significant clinical problem blood glucose nursing diagnosis purchase repaglinide 2mg fast delivery. Lung disease caused by cytotoxic agents is particularly troublesome and survivors of childhood cancer should be followed carefully for chronic pulmonary toxicity blood sugar immediately after eating purchase repaglinide 2mg otc. Early posttherapy hospitalizations among survivors of childhood leukemia and lymphoma diabetes diet breakfast order 0.5mg repaglinide overnight delivery. Monitoring pulmonary complications in long-term childhood cancer survivors: guidelines for the primary care physician diabetes in older dogs uk order repaglinide 0.5mg otc. Predicting the risk of bleomycin lung toxicity in patients with germ-cell tumours. Incidence and correlates of radiation pneumonitis in pediatric patients with partial lung irradiation. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in rats. Effects of elastase inhibitor on the epithelial cell apoptosis in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin and its role in inducing apoptosis and senescence in lung cells-modulating effects of caveolin-1. Lung monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Eosinophils and T lymphocytes possess distinct roles in bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Characterization of the mechanism involved in bleomycin-induced increased hyaluranon production in rat lung. The preclinical basis for broad-spectrum selective cytoprotection of normal tissues from cytotoxic therapies by amifostine. Effects of a leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Prevention of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by aerosolization of heparin or urokinase in rabbits. Eosinophilic pneumonia associated with bleomycin in a patient with mediastinal seminoma: a case report. Fatal cyclophosphamideinduced interstitial pneumonitis in a renal transplant patient. Fludarabine and exposuretargeted busulfan compares favorably with busulfan/cyclophosphamide-based regimens in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: maintaining efficacy with less toxicity. Cyclophosphamide induced early biochemical changes in lung lavage fluid and alterations in lavage cell function. In vivo administration of taurine and niacin modulate cyclophosphamide-induced lung injury. Modulation of cyclophosphamideinduced early lung injury by curcumin, an anti-inflammatory antioxidant. Late-onset pulmonary fibrosis and chest deformity in two children treated with cyclophosphamide. Treatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary insufficiency complicating therapy with high dose cytosine arabinoside in five pediatric patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia developing after initiation of interferon and cytosine arabinoside. Fludarabine-related pulmonary toxicity: a distinct clinical entity in chronic lymphoproliferative syndromes. Hydroxyurea-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a case report and literature review. Diagnosis using leukocyte migration test, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. Severe lymphocytopenia and interstitial pneumonia in patients treated with paclitaxel and simultaneous radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Paclitaxel-induced interstitial pneumonia after drug-eluting stent implantation: report of a fatal case. A commentary on interstitial pneumonitis induced by docetaxel: clinical cases and systematic review of the literature. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis during oxiplatin chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: case report. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Gefitinib) augments pneumonitis, but attenuates lung fibrosis in response to radiation injury in rats. Fatal pulmonary toxicity in a patient treated with gefitinib for non-small cell lung cancer after previous hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to gemcitabine. Incidence and clinical features of drug-induced lung injury in patients with advanced colorectal cancer receiving cetuximab: results of a prospective multicenter registry. Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases associated with molecular-targeted anticancer agents. The role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Chlorambucil-induced pulmonary disease: a case report and review of the literature. Extramedullary toxicity of a conditioning regimen containing busulphan, cyclophosphamide and etoposide in 84 patients undergoing autologous and allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary toxicity following carmustine-based preparative regimens and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in hematological malignancies. Molecular basis for thymidine modulation of the efficacy and toxicity of alkylating agents. Metallothionein attenuates carmustine-induced oxidative stress and protects against pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pulmonary function in patients with trophoblastic disease treated with low-dose methotrexate. Pulmonary function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and effects of methotrexate therapy. Methotrexate pneumonitis: review of the literature and histopathological findings in nine patients. Methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis: report of five cases and review of the literature. Acute pneumonitis associated with low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis; report of five cases and review of published reports. Clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and histopathologic features of methotrexate-associated lung 83. An ultrastructural study of in vivo interactions between lymphocytes and endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of the vascular leak syndrome induced by interleukin-2. Pulmonary toxicity of recombinant interleukin-2 plus lymphokine-activated killer cell therapy. Biologic and clinical effects of continuous infusion interleukin-2 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Functional, biochemical, and histopathologic consequences of high-dose interleukin-2 administration in rats. Locally produced tumor necrosis factor- mediates interleukin-2 induced lung injury. Clinical description of 44 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia who developed the retinoic acid syndrome. Nitrofurantoin-induced desquamative interstitial pneumonitis in a 7-year-old child. Nitrofurantoin-induced interstitial pneumonitis: albeit rare, should not be missed. Nitrofurantoin-associated lung and liver toxicity leading to liver transplantation in a middleaged patient. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia associated with the use of nitrofurantoin. Nitrofurantoin-associated bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: report of a case. Adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin in relation to cellular and humoral immune responses. Acute pulmonary injury in rats by nitrofurantoin and modification by vitamin E, dietary fat, and oxygen. Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis complicating inflammatory bowel disease of childhood. Remission of interstitial lung disease following therapy of associated ulcerative colitis. Pulmonary complications of inflammatory bowel disease: focus on management issues. Gastroenterology case report of mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity. Mesalamine-related lung disease: clinical, radiographic, and pathologic manifestations. Mesalamine-induced pneumonitis during therapy for chronic inflammatory bowel disease: a pediatric case report. Mesalizine-induced acute pancreatitis and interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome due to anticonvulsants in a two year old boy. Levetiracetam-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome. Rheumatoid arthritis complicated with acute interstitial pneumonia induced by leflunomide as an adverse reaction. Leflunomide-related acute interstitial pneumonia in two patients with rheumatoid arthritis; autopsy findings with a mosaic pattern of acute and organizing diffuse alveolar damage. Leflunomide-induced lung injury that developed after its withdrawal, coinciding with peripheral blood lymphocyte decrease. Leflunomide-induced interstitial lung disease: prevalence and risk factors in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Leflunomide use and the risk of interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis. Successful treatment of leflunomideinduced acute pneumonitis with cholestyramine wash-out therapy. Azathioprine-induced lung toxicity and efficacy of cyclosporine A in a young girl with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. Severe pulmonary toxicity after azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine initiation for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. A case of interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis treated with azathioprine. Azathioprine associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: case report and literature review. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with azathioprine therapy in a patient with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Fatal rituximab-associated lung injury syndrome in a patient treated with rituximab for recurrence of post-transplant nephrotic syndrome. A mild form of rituximabassociated lung injury in two adolescents treated for nephrotic syndrome. Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Carbamazepine hypersensitivity syndrome: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Minocyline induced eosinophilic pneumona: case report and review of the literature. Twelve-year analysis of severe cases of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. Goodpasture-like syndrome induced by D-penicillamine in a patient with systemic sclerosis: report and review of the literature. Silverman E, Mouy R, Spiegel L, et al; for the Leflunomide in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Investigator Group. Pneumonitis associated with leflunomide: a profile of New Zealand and Australian reports. Risk of interstitial lung disease associated with leflunomide treatment in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Characteristic features of tacrolimus-induced lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Brief communication: sirolimus-associated pneumonitis: 24 cases in renal transplant recipients. Sirolimus-induced interstitial lung disease following pediatric stem cell transplantation. Pneumonitis as a consequence of (peg)interferon-ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C: a review of the literature. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: an under-recognized and severe adverse effect. Acute amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: an association of risk factors in a child operated by arterial switch operation.
Chills and urticarial rash may occur diabetes symptoms numbers order repaglinide cheap, leading to the diagnosis of a viral syndrome diabetes symptoms wikihow order repaglinide 1mg on-line. The diagnosis of paragonimiasis is frequently not made in the acute stage of the disease diabetes insipidus post cardiac arrest order repaglinide with american express. Most patients look well diabetic ulcers treatment cheap 1 mg repaglinide with mastercard, and the disease may resemble chronic bronchitis or bronchiectasis with a worsening cough that starts out dry and becomes productive and profuse diabetes type 2 hereditary buy repaglinide from india. Other conditions to consider include bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary neoplasm, and other parasitic infections endemic for the region. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be complicated by lung abscess, pneumothorax, pleural adhesions, empyema, and interstitial pneumonia. As noted previously, pulmonary disease may be associated with abdominal (hepatic or peritoneal) and cerebral disease. However, in chronic paragonimiasis, chest radiography may show various abnormalities, including patchy nodular or linear infiltration, well-defined homogeneous densities, pleural thickening, effusion, and calcification. A systemic review of the literature on cystic echinococcosis frequency worldwide and its associated clinical manifestations. Eosinophilic pneumonias in children: a review of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Human toxocariasis: diagnosis, worldwide seroprevalences and clinical expression of the systemic and ocular forms. In the United States, the most likely patient is a refugee, a recent immigrant, or someone with a recent history of travel. Similar to other protozoal infections, the definitive diagnosis can be made by identifying the characteristic golden brown, ellipsoidal operculated protozoal eggs. The characteristic operculated eggs can be identified in sputum or stool specimens, although the sensitivity of the tests is low. Bronchoalveolar lavage also has been successful in identifying the eggs and making the diagnosis. In complicated pulmonary paragonimiasis, the eggs can be identified in pleural fluid or lung abscess material. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance. Toxocara infection in the United States: the relevance of poverty, geography and demography as risk factors, and implications for estimating county prevalence. A systematic review of toxocariasis: a neglected but high prevalence disease in Brazil. Factors affecting disease manifestation of toxocariasis in humans: genetics and environment. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighborhoods in urban Latin America. Pulmonary toxocariasis masquerading as metastatic tumor nodules in a child with osteosarcoma. Toxocariasis mimicking liver, lung and spinal cord metastases from retinoblastoma. Toxocara infection and diminished lung function in a nationally representative sample from the United States population. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis by antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Biological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of Echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Cystic echinococcosis in Bulgaria 1996-2013, with emphasis on childhood infections. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans-review of current knowledge. First report of Echinococcus shiquicus in dogs from eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau region, China. Hydatid disease involved in the heart, liver, and the kidney that caused sudden death: case report. Justified concern or exaggerated fear: the risk of anaphylaxis in percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis-a systematic literature review. Comparison of the protoscolocidal effectiveness of hypertonic saline, povidone-iodine and albendazole solutions in an experimental lung hydatid cyst model. Appropriate approach to bronchobiliary fistulas: a case series with hydatid disease and algorithm of case-based management. Rare reason for pulmonary embolism: one case of pulmonary hydatid cyst and review of the literature. Hydatid disease of the central nervous system: a review of literature with an emphasis on Latin American countries. Strongyloidiasis: risk and healthcare access for Latin American immigrants living in the United States. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, 2009-2013. Transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis through transplantation of solid organs-Pennsylvania 2012; April 12, 2013/62;264266. Strongyloidiasis hyperinfection in a patient with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias associated with human immunodeficiency virus. Strongyloidiasis with emphasis on human infections and its different clinical forms. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome presenting as severe, recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, leading to a diagnosis of Cushing disease. Complicated hydatid cyst and "Air Bubble" sign: a stepping stone to correct diagnosis. Point of care ultrasound assessment of tropical infectious diseases-a review of applications and perspectives. Application of ultrasound in diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, public health and control of Echinococcus granulosus and E. Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Radiological characteristics of pulmonary hydatid disease in children: less common radiological appearances. Serological diagnosis of echinococcosis: the diagnostic potential of native antigens. Serological diagnosis and follow-up of human cystic echinococcosis: a new hope for the future Combined role of Casoni test and indirect haemagglutination test in the diagnosis of hydatid disease. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid tests for the serodiagnosis of hepatic cystic echinococcosis in humans. Is video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery adequate in treatment of pulmonary hydatidosis Hypereosinophilic syndrome secondary to strongyloides infection: a case of recurrent asthma exacerbations. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection presenting with symptoms mimicking acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Usefulness of Strongyloides stercoralis serology in the management of patients with eosinophilia. Real-time polymerase chain reaction in stool detects transmission of Strongyloides stercoralis from an infected donor to solid organ transplant recipients. Real time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in stool. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Subcutaneous ivermectin use in the treatment of severe Strongyloides stercoralis infection: two case reports and a discussion of the literature. Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome and transplantation: a preventable, frequently fatal infection. Detection and treatment of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome following lung transplantation. North American paragonimiasis (caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis. Rare cases of paragonimiasis with involvement of the parotid gland alone in a 5 year old boy. Pleural fluid characteristics of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis masquerading as pleural tuberculosis. Pulmonary paragonimiasis: clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 39 cases in Manipur. A case of delayed diagnosis of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to improvement after anti-tuberculosis therapy. Pulmonary paragonimiasis: the detection of a worm migration track as a diagnostic clue for uncertain eosinophilic pleural effusion. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen. Bjorg Ibsen, a Danish anesthesiologist, was the first to deploy positive pressure ventilation for the care of these patients as the iron lung did not prevent aspiration and was inefficient in the presence of significant atelectasis. The delivery system in turn consists of a breath controller, a mode controller, and a demand sensor. First, the breath is triggered (by ventilator timing, or is initiated by the detection of patient inspiratory effort). Second, the flow of gas is controlled either by attaining a certain pressure, or volume, during inspiration. If "pressure" is targeted, then the inspiratory gas flow will vary depending on the difference between the pressure in the airway at the trachea (measured) and that in the alveoli (not measured), and will decrease as the inspiration progresses. If the "volume" is targeted, then the volume is delivered equally during each fraction of the inspiratory time. These detect changes in pressure (or flow), and the sensitivity (how sensitive is the ventilator to change in airway pressure or flow) and responsiveness (speed of response by the ventilator to such a change) of "effort sensors" are major determinants of satisfactory patient-ventilator interaction. Causes of inadequate respiratory effort include a sustained increase in respiratory and metabolic demand. Finally, ventilation may be used in an emergency to provide hyperventilation when hypocapnia is temporarily sought in the management of acute intracranial hypertension. A contemporary mechanical ventilator is a device made to deliver breaths using positive pressure (pressure above atmospheric level). The technology has become increasingly sophisticated in efforts to improve patient comfort and synchrony, as well to enhance ease of use. It is used for many indications, mainly for respiratory failure either from pulmonary or extrapulmonary sources, as well as to provide anesthesia. The most frequently used invasive modes in pediatric populations are synchronized pressure control ventilation with/without volume limitation and pressure support ventilation. While in special circumstances, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, high frequency oscillatory ventilation may be a first choice, in most cases noninvasive ventilation and humidified high flow are increasingly used. However, positive pressure breathing can cause direct injury to lungs and has deleterious effects on hemodynamics. The overall goal therefore is to optimize patient needs and minimize risk of harm, while tailoring the ventilation strategy to the patient need. Hence, selection of right mode and strategy, optimization of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, and provision of expert care are central to management of mechanical ventilation in critically ill children. The schematic illustrates the essential components of a mechanical ventilator: gas delivery system, gas blender, and patient circuit. The graph depicts changes in pressure, flow, and volume during a respiratory cycle for three commonly used modes: volume control (A), pressure control (B), and pressure support (C) ventilation. The pressure required to achieve the tidal volume depends on the lung compliance and resistance (which may change from breath to breath). During pressure control ventilation (B), the pressure, as well as the start time, duration, and finishing time of the inspiration are decided by the clinician. Pressure support ventilation (C) is a spontaneous mode during which the breath is triggered by the patient (negative airway pressure deflection). In contrast to pressure control ventilation, where inspiration is started and stopped by the ventilator timing, inspiration in pressure support ventilation is controlled by the patient. Because the inspiratory time is fixed, the volume is delivered through inspiration at a constant flow ("square wave" pattern); thus, inspiratory pressure reflects any changes in lung mechanics. In pressure control ventilation the inspiratory pressure is constant; therefore, the pressure-time waveform is a "square wave" pattern. The flow (therefore the volume) of gas, which depends on the pressure difference between the ventilator (gas source) and the alveoli (gas destination), diminishes over time (as the lungs fill). In addition, any changes in compliance, resistance or patient effort will alter the flow (but not the pressure). In pressure support ventilation, the profile of pressure and principles of flow are the same as in pressure control. The "type" of breath is the second main factor, and this describes the interaction between the patient and the ventilator. The clinician sets the "minimum" (or back-up) number of breaths per minute, which is the number of breaths that will occur if the patient makes no effort. However, each breath initiated by the patient will be completed by the ventilator (regardless of the rate). A nasal cannula or mask is often better tolerated but a pressure leak due to a poor interface seal or through the mouth may limit effectiveness.
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Highdose acetaminophen may also cause wheezing in a small portion (<2%) of aspirin-sensitive asthmatics diabetes type 1 pregnancy purchase repaglinide 2mg mastercard. Some (but not all) studies suggest that early-life use of acetaminophen may increase the risk of developing asthma diabetes prevention strategies australia repaglinide 0.5mg on line, and one large trial found a reduced risk of an acute care visit for asthma following treatment with ibuprofen compared with treatment with acetaminophen diabetes insipidus in dogs diagnosis generic 2 mg repaglinide mastercard. Moreover managing diabetes with pilates exercises order repaglinide 1 mg online, some studies are "confounded by indication diabete et miel buy repaglinide 0.5mg cheap," and when adjusted for the incidence of respiratory tract infection, the risk of developing asthma is greatly attenuated. Metabisulfite has been reported as a precipitant or aggravator of asthma, both by allergic and nonallergic mechanisms. Sensitive individuals should avoid foods containing or preserved using sulfites. These results are similar to those described for a cohort study (n = 616) of asthmatic Costa Rican children, 28% of whom were vitamin D insufficient. Serum vitamin D was inversely associated with serum IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. In addition, higher vitamin D levels were associated with a significant decrease in risk of hospitalization in the previous year, a decrease in the use of antiinflammatory medicines, and borderline decreased airway hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms by which vitamin D influences asthma expression remain unclear, but there are many possibilities. Vitamin D suppresses bronchial smooth muscle mass and goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum concentrations are inversely associated with the frequency of viral respiratory infections. Several clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy of vitamin D in asthma treatment have been performed in children and adults. In a study of vitamin D3 supplementation in adults with persistent asthma vitamin D insufficiency, the rate of first treatment failure or exacerbation was not reduced. Nocturnal asthma is a risk factor for asthma severity and even death in some asthmatics. Another explanation is an increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate as an exaggerated normal circadian variation. Abnormalities in central nervous system control of respiratory drive, particularly with defective hypoxic drive and obstructive sleep apnea, as well as physiologic increases in airway parasympathetic tone, reduction in lung volume, and airway smooth muscle unloading may also be present in some patients with nocturnal asthma. Recent work suggests that those with African ancestry who are obese and have lower lung function may be at increased risk for nocturnal asthma and reported a twofold increase compared to European Caucasian counterparts. The use of the oral contraceptive pill has been reported to both aggravate and ameliorate premenstrual asthma. Hyperthyroidism has been reported to worsen or precipitate asthma in an occasional patient, and treatment of hyperthyroidism usually ameliorates the asthma. Vitamin D deficiency has gained increasing attention as a possible contributor to both the development of asthma and a contributor to its control. In addition, several studies demonstrate lower vitamin D levels in African Americans, Hispanics, and obese individuals, all groups with increased risk for higher asthma morbidity. Examination of the volume-time curve and shape of the flow-volume loop provides an estimate of the adequacy of the patient effort in performing the test. However, there is some controversy regarding the value of repeated measures of lung function compared with symptom report in improving asthma outcomes. Use of a peak flow meter in the office setting may provide some useful information about obstruction in the large central airways, but the test should not be used to diagnose asthma. Although standard spirometry has long been considered the gold standard for use in diagnosing and monitoring change in airway function in patients with asthma, other modalities may have particular application in both younger and older children. Forced oscillation capitalizes on the resonant oscillation properties of the airways to measure conductance and reactance and, indirectly, airway resistance. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the tests vary widely, and bronchoprovocation testing cannot serve as the sole determinant of an asthma diagnosis. Methacholine and histamine are considered direct bronchoprovocation agents because they act directly on smooth muscle. Direct bronchoprovocation challenge testing with methacholine is very sensitive and has a better negative than positive predictive value. Delayed or prolonged reactions are extremely rare, and fatalities after methacholine have not been reported. In addition, indirect testing is well correlated with the degree of airway inflammation. Inhalation testing with dry-powder mannitol has good validity, and a commercial kit is approved for use in Europe, Australia, and Table 45. Mannitol has the advantage of being safe and easy, and it requires no special equipment apart from a spirometer. Indeed, bronchial challenge tests with any inhaled agents should only be performed in certified pulmonary function laboratories under the direct supervision of a trained specialist. The presence and number of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells can provide useful information about disease phenotype, activity, and response to therapy. Using cluster analysis in a study of adults enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program, over 80% of those in clusters with more severe asthma refractory to treatment with high-dose inhaled steroids and those with lower lung function had sputum neutrophilia. However, eosinophilia, if present, most commonly suggests asthma, allergy, or both. There has been renewed interest in using peripheral eosinophil count to both suggest an asthma diagnosis as well as to assign asthma phenotype. The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine is an official journal of the American Thoracic Society. The determination of clinical cutoff points for diagnosing asthma, adjusting treatment, and predicting exacerbations remains controversial. In a 1-year follow-up period, there was no difference between the groups in the primary outcome of symptom free days, but there was a significant decrease in exacerbations. However, the exacerbations were largely related to an increase in symptoms and unscheduled medical contact; there was no difference in emergency visits or hospitalizations. A number of studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of inflammatory mediators in the liquid condensate from cooled exhaled air collected over a number of minutes. More recently, devices that measure volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath, so-called electronic noses, have been used to discriminate airway and lung disease states, including asthma. These devices capitalize in part on measuring metabolomic airway products that provide a selective "breath print" that identifies asthma phenotypes. Total serum IgE is often elevated in the child with asthma, atopy, or both; however, a normal IgE does not rule out asthma as a cause of symptoms. After taking a detailed environmental history, skin testing should be performed (usually percutaneous or scratch), limited to the most likely allergens, as suggested by the history. Drugs that affect skin test results include H1 antihistamines (which may inhibit skin reactions for up to 72 hours or longer), tricyclic antidepressants, and some histamine (H2) blockers. Positive (histamine) and negative (saline) control tests should be included to detect inherent skin factors that may affect the reaction to allergen, such as dermatographism and extensive dryness or eczema. The in vitro measure of allergen-specific IgE (s-IgE) makes use of the affinity of serum IgE antibody for antigen that has been bound to a solid phase substrate. The s-IgE is no more specific than the antigen employed, but it can produce a quantitative result, thus allowing the degree of sensitization to be measured. The s-IgE test is significantly more expensive than skin testing, but it can be performed in commercial laboratories and is useful for situations in which skin tests are impractical. Associated signs and symptoms that should prompt a sweat test include poor weight gain and short stature, steatorrhea, nasal polyps, pansinusitis, hemoptysis, and digital clubbing. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis is now universal in the United States, and most cases of cystic fibrosis are diagnosed in infancy or the preschool years, but screening does have a false negative rate of approximately 5%, depending on the cutoff values and the methods chosen. Mutations conferring pancreatic sufficiency, and other rare mutations are typically associated with milder pulmonary disease and may present much later than infancy (see Chapter 50). However, a normal chest radiograph does not rule out other diagnoses, particularly a retained airway or esophageal foreign body. A chest radiograph should be considered for the child admitted to a hospital with asthma, particularly if there are localized findings on physical examination. Paranasal sinus radiographs or screening sinus computed tomography can also be considered for children with persistent nocturnal coughing, nasal symptoms, and headaches. Although acute and chronic rhinosinusitis have long been associated with an increase in symptoms in children with asthma, a recent study indicates that long-term treatment with nasal corticosteroids did not improve asthma control. Nasal symptoms did improve, but the study results argue against treating nasal symptoms to improve asthma control. As a result, severity becomes defined by the level of treatment necessary to achieve and maintain adequate control. Identifying children and adolescents with severe or therapy resistant asthma is important because the need for close monitoring and aggressive treatment will be significant. For most other patients, accurate assessment of control is more important than severity assignment in order to adequately manage asthma. Asthma control is divided into two components: impairment or symptom control and risk. The risk domain refers to preventing severe exacerbations that require medical attention, such as prescription of systemic steroids, emergency medical treatment or hospitalization, loss of lung function or impairment of normal lung growth, and adverse effects caused by medication use. This strategy draws attention to the management of current symptoms and functional impairment, as well as the future effects of asthma and its treatment on lung function and severe exacerbations. It also highlights the very important observation that asthma treatment strategies that improve symptoms may not always result in the prevention of significant exacerbations. Asthma is best managed in a continuous fashion by forming a partnership with a knowledgeable physician or other health care provider. The concept of expecting a near symptom-free lifestyle (for all but the most severely affected patients) should be instilled in patients and their families. Participation in recreational activities, sports, and school attendance should all be expected. Parents should understand that asthma is a chronic disease with acute exacerbations that with currently available treatments can be controlled, but not cured. As better characterization of the inflammatory processes and pathways that affect the airway in specific patients and development of real-time noninvasive monitoring techniques occurs, more precise control of asthma symptoms or even primary or secondary disease prevention may become a realistic goal of asthma management. Classification of Asthma Over the past decade, increasing awareness has been focused on the broad heterogeneity of asthma, both with respect to its causes, manifestations, and response to treatment. Age of onset of symptoms, lung function, inflammatory cell types and mediators in induced sputum, and atopic versus nonatopic are all markers used to characterize disease severity, symptom pattern, and response to treatment. Considerable research is still needed to accurately identify asthma phenotypes and to determine clinically useful methods for classification. In addition, the number, frequency, and intensity of severe exacerbations-defined as an increase in symptoms sufficient to warrant treatment with oral corticosteroids or treatment in the emergency department or inpatient hospital unit-are considered. Some patients who have relatively well-controlled symptoms and good functional status may have frequent or intense exacerbations. Although the correlation between the number and intensity of exacerbations with severity levels is less clear, the greater the number and severity. However, the degree of severity of asthma often changes in a given individual with time, response to treatment, airway injury or growth, the development of newly acquired allergic sensitivities, or change in exposure to recognized triggers. As a result, determination of control after treatment has been instituted is of greater significance than assigning a severity level. Using very similar criteria, asthma is determined to be well controlled, not well controlled, or very poorly controlled (Table 45. Control is determined at every visit, and appropriate treatment adjustments are made. Those with poor control or recent exacerbation may require more frequent visits for treatment monitoring of response and adjustment and monitoring of lung Table 45. The level of intensity does not correlate to specific levels of control but should be considered in the overall assessment of risk. At present, there are inadequate data to correspond frequencies of exacerbations with different levels of asthma control. For treatment purposes, patients who had 2 exacerbations requiring oral systemic corticosteroids in the past year may be considered the same as patients who have persistent asthma, even in the absence of impairment levels consistent with persistent asthma. Before step up in therapy: Review adherence to medications, inhaler technique, environmental control, and comorbid conditions. If alternative treatment option was used in step, discontinue it and use preferred treatment for that step. Since asthma is a chronic disorder that may become clinically obvious only periodically-one in which the severity of airway obstruction, intensity of symptoms, and degree of impairment is frequently underestimated by physicians and patients alike, the use of a standard, validated questionnaire can help overcome this discrepancy. Recently there has been substantial interest in the airway microbiome, with several lines of evidence supporting a role for the bacterial ecosystem of the upper and lower airway in both maintaining pulmonary health and causing chronic conditions, such as asthma. Although there are data that suggest the airway microbiome may differ in those with asthma and healthy controls, as well as differences between degrees of asthma severity,80,81 further research is needed to determine causation and influences of microbiome on immune dysregulation in the airways. Moreover, it is likely that there are "fungal-biomes" and "viral-biomes" that may also influence development and severity of airway disorders, but little data are currently available. However, currently available tests are limited in both availability and utility or practicality. Older models using degree of airway reactivity based on methacholine responsiveness or proportion of eosinophils contained in induced sputum, and then adjusting treatment to decrease airway reactivity or eosinophil counts were shown to achieve better pulmonary function and fewer exacerbations than monitoring symptoms and pulmonary function alone in adults. Controller medications are administered to all asthmatics other than those with intermittent disease and are typically, but not uniformly, antiinflammatory in nature (Table 45. Several immunomodulatory drugs are currently available for treatment of severe persistent asthma and a number of other such biologics are under development, discussed in Chapter 48.
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