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E. Julio, M.A., M.D., M.P.H.

Associate Professor, University of the Incarnate Word School of Osteopathic Medicine

This section shall be applied and construed to make uniform the law relating to misappropriation of trade secrets among states enacting substantially identical laws antibiotics for uti most common buy cheap doxycycline 100 mg. Preemption of common law claims necessarily entails the application of the Act as a whole bacteria 24 effective doxycycline 200 mg. A legislative enactment has an objective: to remedy a perceived defect in the law infection after tooth extraction discount 200mg doxycycline with visa. Karl Llewellyn was the principal draftsman of the Uniform Commercial Code antibiotic dosage for uti buy cheap doxycycline 100mg line, acting as Chief Reporter for the Code from its inception in 1940 until his death in 1962. Rather, the language of the statute must be "interpreted in the context in which it is used; not in isola0 1 8 tion but as part of a whole. Restricting courts to the language of the statute curbs unconstitutional judicial legislating. Legislators enacted the statutory text, not statutory intent, through the constitutional legislative process. A focus on the text incentivizes legislators to be cautious and clear when wording a statute, as "[i]t is the enacted law, not the unenacted intent, that is binding on the public. Statutes with clear and simple language ensure that citizens understand the law and can alter their behavior in accordance with it. Steve Borgman, the Adoption of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act: How Uniform is Uniform The plain language of the uniformity provision directs courts to consider the issue of uniformity prior to interpreting any other terms or provisions of the Act. Advancing Uniformity Through Preemption the importance of uniformity in trade secret protection has grown in parallel with the rise of interstate commerce. For a discussion of the economic costs and benefits of uniform laws, see Ribstein & Kobayashi, supra note 53. An interpretation of a term or provision will promote uniformity so long as all judges apply the same interpretation. It is consistency among the courts in interpreting the phrase that promotes uniformity. In the world of common law trade secret protection, preemption of common law claims is inherently complicated. Retaining common law remedies for the misappropriation of confidential, but not "trade secret," information duplicates the remedies provided under the Act. No such written confirmation was made regarding the information Klein had given Arnold about the laser treatment device. The defendants counter-claimed alleging trademark invalidity and moved for summary judgment on all claims. In 1999, William Manuel ("Manuel") was hired by a subsidiary of Convergys Corporation ("Convergys") where he specialized in outsourced human resources services. On appeal, the Eleventh Circuit affirmed the district court, holding that the district court had not abused its broad discretion to award declaratory judgment. Under Georgia law, an employee is entitled to use personal knowledge of general customer and business information and thus Convergys had failed to state a claim upon which relief could be granted. The court reasoned that only Georgia law applied, since a federal court would apply the choice of law rules for the state in which it sits, and Georgia choice of law rules dictate that tort cases are governed by the law of the state in which the tort is committed. These tubes, which are ultimately used as filtration devices, are made by using machines made by the Meltog company. David Haas ("Haas") was an employee at Arcor from 1983 until his resignation in November of 2004. Haas signed an employment and confidentiality agreement designed to prevent him from disclosing or otherwise using the names of customers. Haas also signed two non-compete covenants, which prevented him from working anywhere within the United States or Canada for one year after leaving Arcor in any capacity where he might be "in competition" with Arcor. Soon thereafter, Jadtis began selling tubes to Jonell and ten other companies who were previously Arcor customers. Arcor sued for misappropriated trade secret modifications and breach of the non-competition clauses. The court also found that the non-competition covenants were overbroad, and thus unenforceable.

We use the term ``select agents and toxins' throughout the preamble of this proposed rule antimicrobial mechanism of action buy cheap doxycycline 200 mg on-line. We solicited comments regarding potential additions and deletions from the list of select agents and toxins for 60 days ending April 28 antibiotics dairy generic doxycycline 200 mg mastercard, 2015 treatment for dogs diabetes discount doxycycline 200mg without prescription. They were from scientists virus 3 weeks doxycycline 100mg fast delivery, scientific organizations, a State government, private individuals, and industry groups. Suggestions in these comments were used in order to inform our discussions on the content of the select agent list. Therefore, we are proposing that the Pasteur strain be removed from the overlap select agent list. Therefore, we believe the effect of exposure to these agents on animal health and on the production and marketability of animal products is minimized. We are proposing that these two Brucella species be removed from the overlap select agent list. Additional Changes We are proposing to make several changes to the regulations, including the addition of provisions to address the 2 C. These changes, which are described in detail below, would increase the usability of the select agent regulations as well as provide for enhanced program oversight. We believe these definitions are necessary as they are included in the additional biocontainment and biosafety language we are proposing to add to the regulations. The definition of inactivation would be established as ``a method to render a select agent non-viable but retain characteristic of interest for future use, or to render any nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any select agent virus non-infectious for future use. The definition of kill curve would be established as ``the results of a dose-response experiment where a select agent is subjected to increasing amounts of the inactivating treatment to determine the minimum conditions required to render it non-viable or to render any nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any select agent virus as non-infectious. This means that the method must be scientifically sound and that it will produce consistent results each time it is used. We are proposing that inactivation include the use of one of the following: the exact conditions of a commonly accepted method that has been validated as applied. Since select agents and toxins have the potential to pose a severe threat to both human and animal health, to animal health, to plant health, or to animal and plant products, clinical and diagnostic laboratories typically have their initial results confirmed by a registered or certified reference laboratory. This change would clarify our expectations regarding communication and notification between the reference laboratory and the specimen provider. Specifically, we are proposing to add provisions that state that we do not regulate material containing select agents or toxins when it is in a patient care setting and is not being collected or otherwise tested or retained, nor do we regulate waste generated during delivery of patient care. However, once delivery of patient care for the select agent or toxin infection has concluded, these specimens would become subject to the requirements of the regulations. If an entity cannot meet these requirements, then the material may be transferred to another entity according to the select agent regulations or destroyed using an approved method. The decision to retain, transfer, or destroy any specimens must be made within 7 calendar days of the conclusion of patient care. This change would serve to codify existing policy and would be added as a new paragraph (b). Paragraph (a)(6) requires the responsible official to ensure that annual inspections are conducted for each location where select agents or toxins are stored or used in order to determine compliance with the regulations. The responsible official also must document the results of each inspection and identify and address any deficiencies. We are proposing to require that any corrections of deficiencies found must also be documented. This change is necessary to improve recordkeeping practices and to provide a more complete account of facility containment and security procedures. We are also proposing to replace the word ``laboratory' with the phrase ``registered space. If there are strain-to-strain variations in the resistance of a select agent to the inactivation procedure, then a specific kill curve would have to be developed for each strain that undergoes the inactivation procedure.

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Yet antibiotics yogurt cheap 100 mg doxycycline with visa, they may still be Source financially dependent on their parents to some degree bacteria zapper for face trusted doxycycline 100mg, and they have not completely attained some of the indicators of adulthood antibiotic for uti gram negative rods doxycycline 200mg otc, such as finishing their education antibiotic 93 doxycycline 200mg cheap, obtaining a good full-time job, being in a committed relationship, or being responsible for others. It is not surprising that Arnett found that 60% of 18 to 25 year-olds felt that in some ways they were adults, but in some ways, they were not (Arnett, 2001). It is a time period of optimism as more 18 to 25 year-olds feel that they will someday get to where they want to be in life. Arnett (2000, 2006) suggests that this optimism is because these dreams have yet to be tested. For example, it is easier to believe that you will eventually find your soul mate when you have yet to have had a serious relationship. It may also be a chance to change directions, for those whose lives up to this point have been difficult. The experiences of children and teens are influenced by the choices and decisions of their parents. They have the chance to transform their lives and move away from unhealthy environments. Even those whose lives were happier and more fulfilling as children, now have the opportunity in emerging adulthood to become independent and make decisions about the direction they would like their life to take. Consequently, Arnett reviewed results from the 2012 Clark University Poll of Emerging Adults, whose participants were demographically similar to the United States population. Results primarily indicated consistencies across aspects of the theory, including positive and negative perceptions 247 of the time-period and views on education, work, love, sex, and marriage. Two significant differences were found, the first being that emerging adults from lower socioeconomic classes identified more negativity in their emotional lives, including higher levels of depression. Secondly, those in the lowest socioeconomic group were more likely to agree that they had not been able to find sufficient financial support to obtain the education they believed they needed. Overall, Arnett concluded that emerging adulthood exists wherever there is a period between the end of adolescence and entry into adult roles, but acknowledging social, cultural, and historical contexts was also important. Cultural Variations the five features proposed in the theory of emerging adulthood originally were based on research involving about Americans between ages 18 and 29 from various ethnic groups, social classes, and geographical regions (Arnett, 2004, 2016). The rest of the human population resides in developing countries, which have much lower median incomes, much lower median educational attainment, and much higher incidence of illness, disease, and early death. The median ages for entering marriage and parenthood are near 30 in most European countries (Douglass, 2007). Europe today is the location of the most affluent, generous, and egalitarian societies in the world, in fact, in human history (Arnett, 2007). Governments pay for tertiary education, assist young people in finding jobs, and provide generous unemployment benefits for those who cannot find work. Emerging adults in European societies make the most of these advantages, gradually making their way to adulthood during their twenties while enjoying travel and leisure with friends. Like European emerging adults, Asian emerging adults tend to enter marriage and parenthood around age 30 (Arnett, 2011). Like European emerging adults, Asian emerging adults in Japan and South Korea enjoy the benefits of living in affluent societies with generous social welfare systems that provide support for them in making the transition to adulthood, including free university education and substantial unemployment benefits. In contrast, Asian cultures have a shared cultural history emphasizing collectivism and family obligations. Although Asian cultures have become more individualistic in recent decades, as a consequence of globalization, the legacy of collectivism persists in the lives of emerging adults. They pursue identity explorations and self-development during emerging adulthood, like their American and European counterparts, but within narrower boundaries set by their sense of obligations to others, especially their parents (Phinney & Baldelomar, 2011). For example, in their views of the most important criteria for becoming an adult, emerging adults Is your culture one that promotes romantic relationships for in the United States and Europe consistently emerging adults According to Rankin and Kenyon (2008), historically the process of becoming an adult was more clearly marked by rites of passage. However, these role transitions are no longer considered the important markers of adulthood (Arnett, 2001).

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At this point in the development cycle of HyperCities bacteria zinc ointment cheap 100mg doxycycline otc, I am interested in seeing what can be done within this platform (and antibiotic resistance zone of inhibition purchase doxycycline 200 mg with amex, of course virus 0xffd12566exe generic 100 mg doxycycline with amex, what cannot be) treatment for uti in female dog 100 mg doxycycline sale, such that some projects will push us further to develop the platform, while other projects will fall short. The primary question, at this stage, is not so much "what should or should not be saved or preserved" (a question of selection) but rather "what can and cannot be thought" (a question of imagination). This raises a related question, namely how one documents this process of experimentation and how one preserves an experiential, hypermedia environment. Many of the most interesting collections within HyperCities cannot be easily "translated" into traditional media formats without much loss, Available for free at Connexions <cnx. Not only is the whole greater than the sum of the parts (for example, the Tehran election protests collection), but the whole in the context of other wholes is greater still. Before we can make rm determinations about what to preserve, it would probably be worth documenting and beginning to historicize the contemporary experimentations in scholarly publishing. How, for example, does one preserve a scholarly environment, even one that only exists for a few years How do such environments inform longer-term shifts and developments in knowledge production and scholarly publishing Finally, there is the larger social and institutional issue of legitimation of this kind of scholarship. It places a high demand on the "reader" to invest the necessary time to traverse the collection in ways that were both intended and perhaps unintended by the author/curator. Certainly, the imprimatur of a university press would go a long way to legitimizing the scholarship (at least in the minds of many in the academy) and also recognizing the vitally generative nature of these kind of publications and publication environments. But this kind of recognition is also risky since business models need to be rethought, the editing and design process needs to be entirely reconceived, and traditional distribution channels can no longer be pursued (at least not in themselves). What this really entails is not only a fundamental rethinking of rethinking of when wht how knowledge gets designed and created, but also a fundamental knowledge looks and sounds like, it is "done" or transformed, how who gets to create and interact with knowledge, it gets authorized and evaluated, and how it is made accessible to a signicantly broader (and potentially global) audience. The twenty-rst century university and university press have the potential to generate, legitimate, and disseminate knowledge in radically new ways, on a scale never before realized, involving technologies and communities that rarely (if ever) were engaged in a global knowledge-creation enterprise. We are just starting to understand and leverage that potential, and the question for me is how to sustain (and not short-circuit) of experimentation and risk-taking. Key questions about the historical trajectory of the Chaco cultureaspects of demography, ritual, and social organizationcontinue to be debated despite over a century of archaeological research in the canyon. The Chaco Archive is designed to integrate widely scattered published and unpublished texts, drawings, photographs, and inventories to allow contextual studies of Chacoan settlements that have not previously been possible. Both the Chaco Research Archive and a very similar endeavor, the Digital Archaeological Archive of Chesapeake Slavery ( I will not focus on the details of the Chaco Archive here, but provide the background to emphasize that I come to this discussion as an archaeologist interested in resolving research questions through empirical tests of alternative answers to those questions. I thus will use the phrase digital scholarship purposely because I see limited value in restricting our discussion to the humanities as opposed to social sciences or sciences. Moreover, sustainability issuesas well as many other concernscrosscut the many worlds of digital scholarship and have done so since intensive academic use of computers began in the middle of twentieth century. As scholars in more and more disciplines embrace the research and educational tools available in the digital world, however, there is little question that sustainability issues have become more complex and more critical. Here I focus on organizational aspects of sustainability, followed by a brief consideration of the specic nature of some approaches to digital scholarship. In my experience, within the realm of archaeology and history there are at least two organizational paths toward sustainability that are not mutually exclusive, with some maintained by universities or foundations and others by professional organizations. Projects developed by faculty of the University of Virginia, for 1 this content is available online at <cnx. On the other hand, whereas it seems likely that the importance of digital scholarship in universities will only increase in the future, the signicance of archaeology and digital scholarship to a more special purpose organization such as the Thomas Jeerson Foundation is harder to predict. In archaeology, a second organizational path to sustainability has evolved, initially in European countries, based at least in part on governmental support. In the United States, a somewhat similar eort has just been initiated with the support of the National Science Foundation, Arizona State University, and, in particular, the Andrew Mellon Foundation. In addition to the two pathways outlined above, it is also worth noting that some publishers have begun to explore, if not require, the archiving of supporting digital information. In another instance, several professional journals that focus on issues of ecology and evolution have instituted a new requirement that supporting data for publications must be archived in an appropriate public archive (Whitlock et al.